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who agree, ils well in this, is in every other fundameutal doctrine of the Gospel.

6. But if the difference be more in opinion, than real erpe rience, and more in erpression than in opinion, how can it be, that even the children of God should so vehemently contend with each other on the point? Several reasons may be assigned for this : The chief is their not understanding one another; joined with too keen an attachment to their opinions, and particular modes of expression.

In order to remove this, at least in some measure; in order to our understanding one another on this head; I shall, by the pielp of God, endeavour to shoir,

1. What is tlic Righteousness of Chrisi: II. Wben, and in what sense, it is Imputed to us : And conclude with a short and plain application.

And, I. What is the Righteousness of Christ? It is twofold, vitler bis Divine or his liuman Righteousness.

1. llis Divine Righteousness belongs to his Divine Nature, as he is O cur, He that existeth; "orer all, God, blessed for ever; the Supreme"; the Eternal; “qual with the lather, as tonching bis Godhead, though inferior to the Father as touching bis manhood." Now this is his eternal, essential, immutable holiness; his infinite justice, mercy, and trutlı; in al! which, He and the Father are One.

But I do not apprehend that the Divine Righteousness of Christ is immediately concerned in the preseut liestion. I believe few, if any, do now contcnd for the imputation of this righteousness to lis. Whoever believes the doctrine of imputation, understands it chicfly, if not solely, of his lluman Righteousness.

2. The Human Righteousness of Christ, belongs to him in his buman nature; as he is the “Mediator between God and man, the Man Christ Jesus." This is cither internal or external. His internal righteousness is the image of God, stamped on crery power and faculty of his soul. It is a copy of his divine righteousness, so far as it can be imparted to a human spirit. It is a trauscript of the divine purity, the divine justice, meres, and truth. It includes lore, reverence, resignation to his father; humility, meckness, gentleness; love to lost mankind, and every other holy and heavenly temper; and all these in the highest degree, without any defect, or mixture of uoboliness.

2. it was the least part of liis calcrual rightcoustiess, that he

did nothing amiss; that he knew not outward sin of any kind, neither was "guile found in his mouth ;” that he never spoke one improper word, nor did one improper action. Thus far it is only a negative righteousness, though such an one as never did, nor ever can, belong to any one that is born of a woman, save himself alone. · But even his outward righteousness was positive too : He did all things well: In every word of his tongue, in every work of his hands, he did precisely the “ will of Him that sent him.” In the whole course of his life, he did the will of God on earth, as the Angels do it in heaven. All he acted and spoke was exactly right in every circumstance. The whole and every part of his obedience was complete. “He fulfilled all righteousness."

4. But his obedience implied more than all this: It implied not only doing, but suffering ; suffering the whole will of God, from the time he came into the world, till "he bore our sins in his own body upon the tree; ” yea, till having made a full atonement for them,“ he bowed his head, and gave up the ghost.” This is usually termed the passive rightcousness of Christ; the former, his active righteousness. But as the active and passive righteousness of Christ were never in fact separated from each other, so we never need separate them at all, either in speaking or even in thinking. And it is with regard to both these conjointly, that Jesus is called “The Lord our Righteousness.

II. But when is it that any of us may truly say, “ The Lord our Rigbteousness?" In other words, when is it that the Righteousness of Christ is Imputed to us, and in what sense is it imputed ?

1. Look through all the world, and all the men therein are either believers or unbelievers. The first thing, then, which admits of no dispute among reasonable men is this : To all believers the righteousness of Christ is imputed; to unbelievers it is not.

But when is it imputed? When they believe : in that very hour the righteousness of Christ is theirs. It is imputed to every one that believes, as soon as he believes : faith and the righteousness of Christ are inseparable. For if he believes according to Scripture, he believes in the righteousness of Christ. There is no true faith, that is, justifying faith, which hath not the righteousness of Christ for its object.

2. It is true, believers may not all speak alike; they may Hot all use the same language. It is not to be expected that

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they should : we cannot reasonably require it of them. A thousand circumstances may cause them to vary from cachi other, in the manner of expressing themselves; but a differcucc of expression does not necessarily imply a difference of sentiment. Different persons may use different expressions, and yet mean the same thing. Nothing is more common than this, although we seldom make sufficient allowance for it. Nay, it is not easy for the same persons, when they speak of the same thing at a considerable distance of time, to use exactly the same expressions, even though they retain the same sentiments : how then can we be rigorous in requiring others to use just the same expressions with us?

3. We may go a step farther yet : Men may differ from us in their opinions, as well as their expressions, and nevertheless be partakers with us of the same precious faith. It is possible they may not have a distinct apprehension of the very blessing which they enjoy: thcir ideas may not be so clear, and yet their experience may be as sound as ours. There is a wide difference between the natural faculties of men, their understandings in particular ; and that difference is exccedingly incrcascd, by the inanner of their education. Indeed this alone may occasion an inconceivable difference in their opinions of various kinds; and why not upon this head, as well as on any other ? But still, though their opinions, as well as expressions, may be confused and inaccurate, their hearts may cleave to God through the Son of his Love, and be truly interested in his righteousness.

4. Let us then make all that allowance to others, which, were we in their place, we would desire for ourselves. Who is ignorant (to touch again on that circumstance only) of the amazing power of education? And who that knows it, can expect, suppose a member of the Church of Rome, either to think or speak clearly on this subject ? And yet, if we had heard even dying Bellarminc cry out,-when he was asked, “ Unto which of the saints wilt thou turn?Fidere meritis Christi tutissimum ; “ It is safest to trust in the merits of Christ;” would we have affirmed that, notwithstanding his wrong opinions, he had no share in his righteousness?

5. But in what sense is this righteousness imputed to believers? In this: All believers are forgiven and accepted, not for the sake of any thing in them, or of any thing that ever was, that is, or ever can be done by them, but wholly and solely for the sake of what Christ bath done and suffered for them. I say again, not for th Ve of any in them, or done by


them, of their own righteousness or works : “ Not for works of righteousness which we have done, but of his own mercy he saved us.' “ By grace yc are saved, through faith, not of works, lest any man should boast ;” but wholly and solely for the sake of what Christ hath done and suffered for us. We are “ justified freely by his grace, through the redemption that is in Jesus Christ.” And this is not only the means of our obtaining the favour of God, but of our continuing therein. It is thus we come to God at first; it is by the same we come unto him ever after. We walk in one and the same new and living way, till our spirit returns to God.

6. And this is the doctrine which I have constantly believed and taught, for near eight and twenty years. This I published to all the world in the year 1738, and ten or twelve times since, in those words, and many others to the same effect, extracted from the Homilies of our Church :-" These things must necessarily go together in our justification ; upon God's part, his great mercy and grace; upon Christ's part, the satisfaction of God's justice; and on our part, faith in the merits of Christ. So that the grace of God doth not shut out the righteousness of God in our justification, but only shutteth out the righteousness of man, as to deserving our justification.” “ That we are justified by faith alone, is spoken to take away clearly all merit of our works, and wholly to ascribe the merit and deserving of our justification to Christ only. Our justification comes freely of the more mercy of God. For whereas all the world was not able to pay any part toward our ransom, it pleased Him, without any of our deserving, to prepare for us Christ's body and blood, whereby our ransom might be paid, and his justice satisfied. Christ, therefore, is now the righteousness of all them that truly believe in him."

7. The Hymns published a year or two after this, and since republished several times, (a clear testimony that my judgment was still the same,) speak full to the same purpose. To cite all the passages to this effect, would to be transcribe a great part of the volumes. Take one for all, which was reprinted seven years ago, five years ago, two years ago, and some months since :

“ Jesu, thy Blood and Righteousness

My beauty are, my glorious dress :
Midst.Aaming worlds in these array’dl,
With joy shall I lift up my head."

The whole hymn expresses the same sentiment from the beginning to the end.

8. In the Sermon on Justification, published nineteen, and again seven or eight, years ago, I express the same thing in these words: (p.87:) “In consideration of this, that the Son of God hath tasted death for every man,' God hath now'reconconciled the world unto himsell, not imputing to them their former trespasses. So that for the sake of his well-beloved Son, of what he hatlı done and suffered for us, God noir vouchsafes, on one only condition, which himself also enables us to perform,) both to remit the punishment due to our sins, to re-instate us in liis favour, and to restore our dead souls to spiritual life, as the earnest of life eternal.”

9. This is more largely and particularly expressed in the Treatise on Justification, which I published last year. “If we take the phrase of imputing Christ's righteousness, for the bestowing (as it were) the righteousness of Christ, including his obedience, as well passive as active, in the return of it, that is, in the privileges, blessings, and benefits, purchased by it; so a believer may be said to be justified, by the righteousness of Christ imputed. The meaning is, God justifies the believer, for the sake of Christ's righteousness, and not for any righteousness of his own. So Calvin : (lostitut. I. 2. c. 17:) * Christ, by liis obedience, procured and merited for us grace or favour with God the Father.' Again : ' Christ, by his obedience, procured or purchased righteousness for us.' And yet again : ‘All such expressions as these, That we are justified by the grace of God, that Christ is our righteousness, that righteousness was procured for us by the death and resurrection of Christ, import the same thing; namely, that the righteousness of Christ, both his active and passive righteousness, is the meritorious cause of our justification, andhas procured for us at God's hand, that, upon our believing, we should be accounted righteous by him.” Page 5.

10. Bit perhaps some will object, “Nay, but you affirm that Faith is imputed to us for righteousness.” St. Paul affirms this over and over; therefore Iaffirmit too. Faith is imputed for righteousness to every believer; namely, faith in the righteousness of Christ; but this is exactly the same thing which has been said before; for by that expression I mean neither more nor less, than that we are justified by faith, not by works; or that every believer is forgiven and accepted, merely for the sake of what Christ has done and suffered.

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