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2. Name all the counties along the east Barrow, Newton, Boyle, Baxter, Owen, coast of Britain, with the chief coast- Clarendon, Penn, or Bunyan. Note lying towns in each, e. 9.,

the chief events and dates regarding (Lynn, near the mouth of the

the rise and progress of the newspaper Great Ouse. Norfolk

press in England. Yarmouth, at the mouth of VII. What is testimony? and what the Yare.

are its laws? What is the logical IV. When was Richard II. born ?

meaning of probability ? Describe inwhen did he begin his reign? and what duction, and state its three chief procircumstances marked his coronation ? cesses. Compress into three laws the Describe Wat Tyler's insurrection, procedures of induction. Criticize quoting any poetry you know referring briefly the induction of Aristotle, Bacon, to that event. What were the relations and J. S. Mill. of Scotland and England during this VIII. Define carefully the indeclinreign? Who were the wives of Richard able parts of speech. Give the syntax II., and what were their characters? by which they are ruled. Collect six Describe the rise and progress of the examples from the poets of the use of Lollards. Detail the events attending each indeclinable part of speech, and the deposition of Richard H., and the show its consonance with the syntax. circumstances of his death. Who were Similarly illustrate the syntax of the bis contemporaries ? What social verb. Milton's “Paradise Lost" as changes are due to this reign?

usual. V. Latin (transferred to language department].

PART IL-FRENCH, GERMAN, LATIN,

AND GREEK. VI. Give brief biographical notices of Cowley, Otway, Sedley, Waller, or I. Theoretical.—What is grammar? Marvel, mentioning their contributions What are words—letters-vowels to literature. Write out any short consonants--diphthongs? What are the piece by any one of these authors, and accents? What is an apostrophecriticize each important word in it, cedilla—the diæresis—a hyphen? What showing its appropriateness or inap. is meant by number-by gender-by. propriateness Quote any six aphorisms inflection? from the works of Thomas Fuller. Who Practical. Form first.--Translate and what was Izaak Walton? what did le père, la mère, les frères, les sæars, he write? and what did he do? Give l'homme, l'ami, les hommes, les ami, la criticisms of any of the works of 1 chaise, le soleil, la lune, le livre, la table,

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Form second.-Translate Dieu est (paper-dealer), pflug (plough), prinz éternel; les bons seront récompensés; la (prince), professor, rest, ratte, regenterre est ronde; les temps sont changés; schirm (umbrella), sommer (summer), la neige est blanche; le travail est néces- schimmer (shimmer), tochter (daughsaire ; le ciel est bleu ; la modestie est ter). Commit these words and their plaisant ; l'eloquence est née avant la meanings to memory, noticing their rhetorique; la servitude est abrutissant. likeness to English ones. Arrange the several parts of speech in Senior.-Copy out in German chaseparate columns; give the plural of racter any twenty lines of prose or each noun, and the rule for its forma. poetry, giving a note of the author and tion; give the two gender forms of the work (referring to the page) from each adjective (or participle), and the which the extract is made, and supply rules. Out of the words above given an interlinear translation. Decline the construct six other sentences in French. nouns in the passage in proper paraUnderline the subject of each sen- digmal form. It is believed that small tence, and double underline each attri- works or fragments from the works bate or predicate.

of German authors may be in the Form third.- Perform the imme- possession of most students having diately preceding exercise, and translate German leanings. If not, the conthe first chapter of Lamartine's Chris- ductor would propose Fouque's " Untophe Colomb (Hachette, Paris, price dine," which can be had cheaply (sixone franc); arranging in a table or pence he thinks), in an edition published paradigm the verbs in the chapter. by Wm. Allan, Stationers' Hall Court,

II. Copy in print and script the London, as a ready, handy, good book German alphabet.

Write out the for a reader labouring his way to & German forms of the double consonants knowledge of the German language. ch, chs, ck, sch, st, sp, ss, sz, tz. Write III. Junior.-Cæsar or Nepos, as in German characters--print or script- before. the following words:-altar, balsam, Senior.–Virgil, Horace, or Catiline, classe, criminal, cement, dachs (badger), as ia former lessons. darstig (thirsty), englander, feind, IV. Junior.-What are the letters frölich (merry, frolicsome), garten of the Greek alphabet? giving an exact (garden), gold, glas, haus (house), copy of it. Write the Greek deriva hatmacher (hatmaker), hungrig (hun- tives of alphabet, of delta, of jot, or gry), jahr (year), jung (young), korn. iota. Copy into Greek letters the (grain), korb (basket, corbeille), kessel following words :-gē, earth ; mache, (kettle), lampe, land, leder (leather), battle; nike, victory; ergon, work; bibminister, morgen (morning), Dacht lion, book ; thura, door; do.ca, glory; (night), nest, oel (oil), ochs (ox), philos, friend ; akme, a point ; phonē, ofen (store), papier, papier-handler voice, sound; rhodon, rose; dendron, a

tree; anthos, a flower; bios, life; glossa, the tongue; gripos, a net. What Greek words form part of the following English ones ? —Geo-graphy,-metry,-logy-desy; bib-le,-liopole,-liolatry; thoroughfare(?); dox-ology; philo-sophy, -mathist; acme; phon-ography, -otypy, -ic, -etic; rhododendron, dendr-itic; antho-logy, biology,-graphy; gloss-ology, -ary,gripe(?).

Senior.- Decline the Greek nouns or adjectives whose roots appear in the

italicized part of the following English words.-Throne, microscope, economy, stole, lyre, astronomy, thermometer, lamp, theology, hippodrome, logic, psychology, necromancy, chronometer, glossary, caligraphy, philosopher, hydrophobia, polemic, mythology. Translate about 20 lines of Xenophon's

Anabasis," quoting the verbs in the passage, and parsing them.

Literary Notes.

JAMES SHERIDAN KNOWLES (born 1784, at Cork), author of " Virginius," “ William Tell," and pumerous other first-class modern plays, died at Torquay, in Devonshire, Nov. 30th.

Lieut. Donald Campbell, claimant of the Breadalbane peerage (Scottish), is the author of the “ Language of Poetry and Music of the Highland Clans.”

Mr. Samuel Bailey has nearly ready for issue a volume of essays on Causation, Evidence, Language, and Moral Sentiments.

The third volume of E. E. Crowe's “ History of France" is nearly finished, and a fourth will complete the work.

A supplementary volume to Bunsen's "Egypt's Place in Universal History," not yet published in Germany, is in Messrs. Longman's press.

Wm. Howitt will shortly add to the literature of spiritualism ** A History of the Supernatural.”

Professor Shaw, of St. Petersburg, Professor of English literature, is dead.

Mrs. Fitz-Simons, the daughter of Daniel O'Connell, the agitator, is about to issue a volume of poems.

Mr. Blanchard Jerrold, assisted by a committee of legal and other gentlemen, is about to issue a popular work on " The Laws we Live Under."

A biography of Victor Hugo, by his wife, is in the Parisian press.

Lost and Saved" is to be the title of the Hon. Mrs. Norton's new novel.

The first volume of Napoleon III.'s “Life of Cæsar" is again the subject of rumours.

The following inscription has been placed on a handsome marble slab on the wall of the house in which Mrs. Browning resided, by the Florentines;" Here wrote and died Elizabeth Barrett Browning, who in her woman's heart united the wisdom of a sage and the spirit of a poet, and who made of her verse & golden link between Italy and England."

The poems of the late Hugh Macdonald, which were to have been edited by Alexander Smith, who wrote notice of his fellow.poet in Macmillan's Magazine, will be issued now under the editorship of William W. Scott, whose friendship bas outlasted the hour of pity, and whose charity is more of a practical than of a promising nature.

Miss Pardoe, novelist, and "boudoir historian,” died 8th Dec.

Mr. Bell MacDonald, of Rammerscales, Dumfriesshire, translator of “Faust," and one of the most notable linguists in Scotland, died in Glasgow, 5th December, aged 55.

Mr. Froude has, it is said, grown weary of his seat as conductor of Fraser.

&

European Philosopby.

THE LOGIC OF ARISTOTLE. "Logic since the time of Aristotle, like pure geometry since the time of Euclid, is a finished science, which in all essentials has received neither improvement nor alteration.”—EMANUEL KANT.

ARISTOTLE possessed an encyclopædic knowledge and a methodic mind. The powers of classification were developed in him in a super-eminent degree. He mastered all the science of his age, fitted its teachings together into systematic oneness, formed it into a consistent whole, and extended the dominion of thought over the multitudinous details of life, practice, analysis, and investigation. He was a systematizer. Destitute of the intense personality and the plastic energy of Plato, or of the practical controversial subtlety of Socrates, he yet displayed the diligence of a collector, the insight of an observer, the acuteness of an analyst, the comprehensiveness of a philosopher, and the testing power of a critic, combined with the singular originality of a creative intellect. In him the capacity of holding, in thought, the exhaustless variety of individual phenomena, and the ability to perceive and apply the universal principles which perrade, overmaster, and explain these positive realities, existed in a rare co-operative and mutually balanced activity. His observative powers comprehended every individuality of appearance and manifestation-all that sensation, experience, and reflection can furnish to the mind; but his profound speculative tendency enabled him to see in these particular forms of being the internal characters which brought them under the ultimate principles of thought, through which they become harmonized, organized, and thinkable.

Plato's wondrous imaginative energy shows itself in all the outgush of his thoughts; the strong personality and livingness of Socrates permeates all his inquiries and his doctrines ; but Aristotle retires from ken and view, entirely suppresses his own individuality, and devotes himself exclusively to the matter of nature or the form of thought. Disconnected observations he methodizes, tests, and unifies; incomplete enumerations he extends, examines, and arranges, and then strives to bring these facts of real life into some constituted harmony of thought, and to subject nature, experience, and life to some pervading, vivifying, and intelligible principle.

The Aristotelic philosophy was thorough; it included nature, man, and God; it extended from the primary sensations of childhood to the noblest cognitions of the reason and the culminating achievements of art. In the early chapters of his Metaphysics we find a masterly sketch of the progressive development of knowledge-

1863.

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a sketch which, in our opinion, supplies the centre-light of the whole system of thought which constitutes his Philosophy. After postulating that the human mind, on receiving from sensation the elements of thought, is, by an irrepressible internal necessity, impelled from idea to idea along the whole course of a philosophy -if it be permitted unstifledly to prosecute its inborn tendency to reflectiveness, he shows how, from the observation of sensational experience, and the notice of the activities and empirical operations of consciousness, we ascend to the comprehension of generalsunderlying and forming the true essence of particulars or individuals -and pass by regular gradations from experimental acts to artistic endeavours, and from technical arts to reasoned sciences, and from the individual sciences to one universal, ultimate, all-inclusive metaphysic, which contains implicitly the ground and explanation of all possible science, art, experience, and sensation.

When employing itself in this instinctive philosophizing, the human mind comes into a certain sort of antagonism with outward objects. In this hostile attitude of thought and its external excitants, the mind may either remain in the seclusion of a mere speculative spectatorship, and, beholding phenomena flitting in infinite variousness around it, may strive to account to itself for the singular ongoings of external nature or the strange vagrancies of feeling, passion, and imagination they effect in it-may, in fact, contemplate or theorize upon the phenomenal manifestations of nature to sense and to thought; or else, having no definite aims and intents, it may deploy itself among phenomena, and take from them such pleasure, profit, instruction, or inducement, as they give, and so act, suffer, learn, and be led, as men in common life do; or yet again, it may, with predetermined purpose and reflective resoluteness, mingle itself with the throng of phenomena, question them as to their coming and going,—their order, sequence, and effects, -their capacities, powers, and dispositions; and hence learn to govern and use them, or submit to their requirements, and adapt their efficiencies to the accomplishment of its own designs,-and thus give play and scope to its own faculties of research, discovery, invention, or creativeness.

These exertions of thoughtful energy-contemplation, action, and creativeness-correspond with the threefold division of philosophy into throretical, practical, and poetical, or, as we should now call it, æsthetical. The theoretical and the practical sciences have been opposed to each other, and been admitted and maintained as validly distinct from the days of Aristotle to our own times. The third division was for ages disregarded and forgotten until revived in Germany by Lessing, Kant, Schiller, Schelling, &c., under the title of Æsthetics, or the philosophy of art.

Science is the product of the activity of reason. To determine, therefore, the true internal laws of the reason is a necessary preliminary to the acquisition of duly demonstrated science, of trustworthy knowledge of a sufficient philosophy. As an introduction

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