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club meeting at Raoken's Tavera. All its popularity (which could scarcely this is past and gone. The Drydens, increase) has been maintained with the Addisons, and the Johnsons of our little if any diminution for sixty years. day hold forth no longer at Will's or But in fulfilling its own task of inthe Mitre. If a more domestic, we are structing intelligent persons in the certainly a less "clubbable' generation. latest results of scientific discovery, The effect tells eren upon our literary often from the very mouths of the disand scientific undertakings. The clubs coverers themselves, it has deprived of of modern London are rather institu- one great attraction the meetings of tions for the luxurious accommodation the Royal Society, the great fountain of individuals, than for social inter- and source whence such knowledge course; and the attempt of Sir H. Davy naturally flows. Similar influences and others to combine them in any have prevailed in Edinburgh, to the degree with literary conversation, in diminution of the attendance in this the case of the Athenæum, proved a place. Those who can look back to the total failure. An analogous influence audiences assembled in this room from is found in the vast expansion of intel- twenty-five to thirty years ago, when lectual intercourse through the means ordinary scientific papers were read, of the press, and in the filtering of know- will corroborate my testimony as to the ledge of all kinds—of scientific know- change which less than even one geneledge, perhaps, especially-through ration has brought about. The social the widely extended system of popular spirit of coming together for common lectures. In these two features of the objects, self-improvement in the first age we find sufficient reasons alone to place, and the charm of a periodical (a &ccount for much of the social change fortnigbtly) meeting with like-minded to which we have referred. News- persons (seldom, perhaps, met with in the papers, magazines, and ephemeral lite- interval), counteracted the tendency to rature of every kind supplant the oral criticize, and the intolerance of hearing intercommunication characteristic of something read not immediately or the days of clubs. A man takes home directly interesting to the hearer. with him to his fireside the gossip, the Were I to enumerate the names of that jokes, the discoveries, the discussions, large band of our fellow-citizens, our grave or gay, of the day. And in mat- professors, our distinguished lawyers, ters of science it is somewhat the same. our country gentlemen, and Sluch he finds of all that is most occupy- amateurs, who, meeting after meeting, ing the thoughts of able men pursuing used to occupy almost the same indinatural knowledge set down in the vidual places on these benches, so that pages of the periodicals. Nothing of their loss or absence could in a moment importance can be communicated to a have been noticed, I should recall to society which does not soon become many even now present the different matter of public notoriety through such phase in this respect which the Society channels. But still wider is the influ- of Edinburgh presented then from now. ence of those popular discourses or lec- Let me jast name almost at hazard a tures, which now practically supply to few of those whose images live in my many persons of general information, memory as I now address you, as but not professed students, the intellec- among those who as a rule attended, tual interest formerly sought in the and as a rare exception were absent. meetings of our learned societies, and I There was the ever-animated, zealous, believe I might add, in the case of and punctual president, Sir Thomas Edinburgh, in some measure from our Brisbane; the polite and decorous Dr. university courses also. The Royal Hope ; the indefatigable, unassuming Institution of London commenced this Lord Greenock ; the sagacious Dr. system with splendid advantages, and Abercrombie; the lively, unresting Sir
George Mackenzie; the hospitable Professor Russell (whose academic suppers are not even now forgotten); the beneficent, large-minded Dr. Alison; the kindly, genial Professor Wallace, close to whom usually sat Mr. James Jardine, with his finely-chiselled features and intellectual forehead; the accurate Mr.
Adie ; and the conscientious, modest astronomer, Mr. Henderson: there were also the ingenious Sir John Robison ; the frank and manly Dr. Graham; the quiet, humorous, and ornithological Mr. James Wilson; the encyclopaedic Dr. Traill; and the shrewd and wellread, but reserved Mr. W. A. Caddell."
Our Collegiate Course ;
OR, AIDS TO SELF-CULTURE.
"OUR Collegiate Course” has been considerable good results. Though the carried on during the year 1862, as questions proposed were few in number an interesting and valuable experi- monthly, they were yet searching, and, ment. It has not been attended with what is of far greater value, were, in so much apparent, though with much general, such as to require, or at any more real success, than we anticipated. rate afford, opportunity and inducement The numbers entered on our books for research. Many of the students as students by no means indicate the saw this and acted upon it-others, actual receivers of benefit from the unfortunately, saw this, and shrank examination papers set in these pages. from the toilsome task. We were Mady who were unwilling or unable to sorry to notice some active-minded in. bind themselves to the regular and dividuals thus take their hand from the statutory performance of the require. plough upon which they had placed it, ments of the several classes, have had and, startled by apparent difficulties, their thoughts and their reading directed turn from “Our Collegiate Course" into a somewhat systematic train, and with a hesitant step and a look of dishave been enabled to test their own comfort, as if anxious to go on, and powers by answering, or attempting to yet afraid of being overtasked. A little answer, the queries contained in the more confidence in our sympathy might brief pages allotted to this department. have spared them the self-conscious Others, who did not publicly join our humiliation. The competition to which student lists, formed themselves into our students are exposed is not such mutual improvement parties, and used as to wound the self-love of any one. the questions set as the groundwork of The secret of the personality of each their studies and readings; while a few, student is safe with us-indeed, in who shrunk from the actual competition some instances, only the nom de plume of the registration, still tested their was known to the conductor of a class, knowledge by our prescribed tasks, and the name itself and the address being thus gained some profit by the publi- | only in the matriculation-book of the cation of those tentative questionings. projector and general manager of the Thus far they have been beneficial in a scheme. The relative progress of each subsidiary sense, and to an end beyond student was carefully marked, and in the immediate sphere of our calculation. some cases it will be observed by those Within that sphere, however, the as- who have consulted the register, that signed studies have been productive of greater actual progress has been made
by some of those who began low, than sive month, so that all exercises may be by others who were but a few degrees at once and together forwarded to their from our ideal standard. Nor is this respective destinations. to be wondered at; for the spur in the student be unable in any month to side of an earnest student is driven forward the exercises then due, if a more strongly inward on seeing others note is forwarded, intimating that fact before him, and a continuance of eager and its cause, an entry to that effect effort increases his power of thought will be made in the class-books, and and work; while the other, too conscious the registration will be kept open till of leading off, sometimes forgets to look the same period next month; if no note behind at the efforts of his fellow- be received, the registration column runners in the race. We have, however, will be closed for that month. This a greater desire to approve of the labours the conductor regards as just alike to than to reprove the remissness of our student and critic. To student, by freshmen. They may yet become good training him to regularity ană attengraduates in our after-studies. We tiveness, without closing the opporbave been glad to know that their tunity of making up leeway; to the palses did beat with a desire for pro- critic, by furnishing him with all the gress; we have faith that these same exercises for comparative perusal at the pulses will beat again, and be more same time, and thus enabling him to imperatively active in the future. To dispose of his work definitively at the faint in a long, steep way on a pro time appointed. We hope each stutracted journey is perbaps natural, to dent, past and intending, will duly and remain faint-hearted and depressed, we truly study the laws laid down for the pould fain hope is not necessary. "Up management of these classes—which again!" is a possibility for any such a will be repeated in their revised form one; and “on again!" is a practicality. in our next issue-and do his utmost
The labour entailed on the different to fulfil them in their integrity. The conductors by the careful perusal and possibility of successfully carrying on adjudication of each separate monthly the scheme is jeopardized each time instalment has been materially in- that a law is broken or a rule neglected. creased -as has also the expense in- We beg to recall attention to the curred-by the irregularity of the times papers contained in the issues of this of transmission of several students, while serial for Dec., 1861, and Jan., 1862. the danger of mistakes was multiplied These contain the spirit of our fancies” by the same cause. The conductors regarding the project. We would fain are under the necessity of having fised preserve ourselves from being misundertimes for receiving and reading the stood. We believe our scheme to be a exereises, and of sending off their regis- beneficial auxiliary to all classes of trations ; papers forwarded at other self-culturists. To those studying at times than these, not only run the institutions, to test their actual comrisks of misdirection, but also of being prehension of the instructions received, (unintentionally) mislaid, or otherwise and their power of properly filling up dropping out of memory even when examination papers on several subjects; read, because not read in connection to those studying by the home hearth, with the others, and while the mind is or in the lonelier lodging- house, and employed in that specific work. While who require not advice and inducement each conductor expresses himself as only to work their minds up, but who anxious to accommodate in any case of need watchful stimulation, and a sort real necessity any student, the general of thermometer of progress--to those conductor feels bound to request that all whose hours of study are intermittent, exercises hereafter shall be posted be- and who cannot therefore share in the tween the 12th and 18th of each succes- advantages afforded by institutes and
schools, but who, by using the precious moments of their casual leisure, may work them to profitable issues in the pursuit of those studies to which we invite them here, and to many who bave studied beforetime, but find it useful to employ their minds and recall their old activities to labour and the enjoyment of labour again. Another class there is who may receive profit from our humble efforts, and find their home-hours blessed by our monthly professorialism--those who, in the morning of family life, find it their duty to be “stayers at home," and whom even the fascinations of institute life and progress cannot tempt from a wife's side, from child-training, or from the sedder sick couch which demands the silent, loving watchfulness of the antasked hours. To such our pages can give stimulant and yet light employment, performable at any interval the gliding hours afford, and would supply an interest for many a vacant time which now hangs heavily on hand. We do not presume to indicate or guess the whole numbers or conditions of those who might join our student classes, and make “ Our Collegiate Course a light and a joy in many a British home-rescuing time from the tarern, the smoke-corner, the tattle lounge, the card-table, the saloon, the busybody's chat, the sensation tale, or the records of the fancy; and brighten life with a grander and better influence.
In so far as our experiment has gone, we have had much reason to congratulate ourselves upon its usefulness. Many of our students' letters are highly interesting,
- even their statements of difficulties give them a sweet corner in our thoughts. We are encouraged to hope that, as the knowledge of our scheme is widened among our readers' friends, the success will be greatened and the usefulness increased. In this hope we intimate not only a continuance, but an extension of our endeavours, as well as, in some respects, a remodelment of our plan. To the explanation of these extensions and
changes we shall devote the remainder of this already too lengthy paper-being as brief as possible.
1. The arithmetic class will be continued as heretofore, except that a theoretic section will be introduced, in which a series of queries regarding the technical terms, principles, and philosophy of arithmetic will be set before the student, as suggestive of information requiring to be gained, and investigative of his acquaintance with the material elements of a proper knowledge of the art of numbers. The questions for solution, as hitherto, will be in general confined, for some time yet, to matters requiring, or inducing to, a correct and reasonable performance of practical accounts. They are not intended as puzzlers, but as tests and inducements; they are not intended to gratify the vanity of the conductor, but to benefit the earnest student. It is hoped that their simplicity will constitute their charm, rather than that it shall raise the scoff of the selfsufficient. The aim is utility-pot show-off.
II. The bookkeeping class will be put under a new system of management. The conductor will assign a text-book to be worked out, with notes, upon the reasons and methods of the entries, and so, it is hoped, greater system may be inaintained and be possible under the new than in the old form. This, however, is determined upon, not because of any doubt of the successfulness of the last year's teach ing, but because it is believed it will meet more availably the wants of those who desire to study this branch of commercial equipment. The text-book chosen will be cheap.
III. A new series of geographical queries will be begun, and will be more strictly confined to the British possessions than those of last year.
IV. The class in British history will be continged in the same style as before.
V. The Latin class will be remitted to the language division, and will stand as class third in that department,
as beneficial employment for leisure hours, as aids to intellectual enjoyment, and means of intelligent recreation, it may be as awakeners of aims and ambitions, sleeping in the out-of-the-way corners of the heart, and long covered over by the labours, cares, amusements, or indolences of daily life. We shall grudge our efforts sorely should the response not be such as to give us the good hope that they are likely to prove useful, improving, exciting, and interesting to a large body of our readers. Do not let them fear that if they support us with the consciousness of being effective for good in our generation, they will overpower us with hard work. Our well-toiled hours will only look more valuable in our eyes, because the more bless-giving in their passage and employments.
after French and German, and before Greek.
VI., VII., and VIII. These classes will be retained under the same management and form. It is expected that the last two will be concluded within the present year, and that the first will be brought down to 1800, or nearly so. After the withdrawal of these it is intended to supply their place with a new special series of lessons on the English language.
The conductors, sincerely anxious as they have always been to supply as many of the wants of their readers as they can, have made arrangements for the opening of three new classes, viz., French, German, and Greek. These lessons will form entirely new and original courses of instruction in these tongues. They will aim at great simplicity, and yet their utility, it is believed, will be such, that even those somewhat advanced in these languages will find the study-if not the actual Forking out of the lessons — beneficial. As a chief aim in the assignment of tasks, ibe connection between these several languages and that of our own country will be carefully remembered. As, however, the maintenance of these several classes entails apon the proprietors an outlay which neither the matriculation nor the class fees charged can cover, they can only be carried on esperimentally; and unless the possible good likely to result from retaining them in active operation be seen, they cannot be kept permanently in the course. Indeed, students cannot too well remember that the labours of the gentlemen who act as class conductors ought to rewarded with the most pleasing of all consciousness that their works are prospering towards their true ends.
We earnestly commend these new efforts to the attention of all studentminded readers, whether engaged in any special preparation or not. If so engaged, as helps and guides -neither too engrossing to interfere with other progress, nor so difficult as to produce fatigue or distaste; if not so occupied,
1. Figurate.-1. The sanctuary at Butis, in Egypt, is formed of one cubeshaped stone of 60 feet, open at the top, and hollowed so as to leave the stone everywhere 6 ft. thick. Required the weight in tons, &c., of this stone, calculating each cubic foot thereof to weigh 184 lbs.
2. If the ground allowed for a grave is 8 ft. X 3 ft., how many acres of burial-ground will be required in Britain, the population of which is 29,036,500, if one in 35 dies annually, and each grave remains unopened for 12 years? 3. If a farmer has 10 acres laid out in turnips in rows a yard apart, and finds that each yard, on an average, produces 4 turnips of 3 lbs. weight, what would be the total number of turnips, their weight, and their cost, at 10d. per cwt.? Commercial.-1. If a cow gives 20 qts. of milk per diem for 240 days in the year, and 25 qts. yield 1 lb. of butter, how much butter will be produced duriug a year in a dairy where 27 cows are kept? and what would its value be at 10d. per lb.? 2. I sold 33 pipes of wine at £110 0s. 6d., and thereby gained as much as I would have sold 3 pipes for: what did I pay for it? and what did I gain? 3. A bankrupt's effects