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will deprive masters of all induce- much affect the personal conscience. ments to such sacrifices.

Per con

We think the Lancashire distress ought trà, my reasons in favour of relying to be relieved by the national bounty, on private beaevolence are:-1. No because it is the result of the national governmental machinery for the distri- will.-G. N. bution of relief could be constructed The aid of the Lancashire distress which would be equal to the agency of by private alms is, in reality, making many thousand educated and intelligent the poor, out of their poverty, support Christians who are employed many

their brethren. Reokon the poor seamhours per day, not in hope of gain, stress's penny with a lordling's thoubut for love of a common Redeemer, sand, and compare its relation to her and in remembrance of a common hu- income and to his, and it will be found manity. 2. The generous response of that the loud-resounding sum bruited manufacturers, landowners, merchants, abroad pom pously in the advertising and the country at large, has contri- columns of the newspapers near which buted, and will contribute, to lessen the the lordly estates lie, is but a paltry gulf, which some feared was widening, mite compared to the sacrifice of that between the hand-workers and head- one penny by the long-boured sitter at workers. All those resident now in the needle. The real charity shown in Cottonia must have frequently heard the case is not the he-puffed aristocrat's expressions of heartfelt gratitude and large sum, advertised in the daily kindness used by operatives towards records, but in the small, difficultythose who previously were regarded earned, sweat-wet pence of the fellow with suspicious hatred. 3. If we operative-registered only in heaven. believe the Gospel at all, we should Private alms is, in reality, a tax on believe (how few of us really do!) that the poor to save the rich, while the " it is more blessed to give than to latter get all the credit, renown, and receive." We may depend upon it, buttered talk. Tax all alike, and how that no contribution, given in a chris- different would be the sum payable by tian spirit, will lose its reward.- the noble and wealthy from that which N. E.

shows so largely in the county paper!

Tom SENSIBLE.
NATIOXAL BOUNTY.

Given, the task to ease the revenue The distress which the cotton dis. of a burden which has usually been tricts at present suffer is admittedly cast upon it--call the tax charity, and imputable to our national policy. It is it is accomplished. How much more the result of the legislative wisdom or cleverly we can financier nowadays unwisdom of the nation's represen- than in those of our great-grandfathers! tatives. It is therefore the duty of the How much better, even, than twenty workers of the woe to devise and set iu years ago! Then, Ireland endured sad operation the remedy. The evil is privations, and the nation's millions wrought by the advisers of the Crown, went down into every Irish hut and acquiesced in by the entire community; cabin in blessing and plenty. Since, and that community which approves of the Indian mutiny called for excessive and supports the policy of Lancashire taxation, and when all was wrung out starvation, ought undoubtedly to have that could be by the taxman's heavy their share of the evil brought distinctly hand, some bright genius devised the home to them by the tap of the tax- sounding brass and tinkling eymbal of gatherer at their doors. This is the charity, and pockets opened, and gold only way of making them feel their flowed, and the national exchequer was responsibility for the ongoings of the materially eased thereby; and now Government. Only when a national wretchedness is at our doors, and the policy toucles inen's pockets does it exchequer réjres to have any pressure

upon it repressed, and the same cry for "good Samaritanism" is got up. The Lancashire people paid nobly when they had; why not let them now reap the tithe of a ten-thousandth part of that which in their prosperity they gave? Public bounty is their due.-BOLTON OLDHAM.

If the question were, How to institute a tax which would fall least heavily on those most bound to pay? no plan could possibly be devised better than to proceed in the present distress to trust to private alms. The niggardly, selfish, soulless wretch whose fortune has been secured to him by dint of avaricious pinching of the toiling millions, or by the accident of birth, totally escapes, or flourishes as a noble benefactor by a donation of—say £15, when it is known that that is scarcely an hour's income to him; while the poor labourer, who counts his hour's wage by pence, gives his weekly shilling ungrudgingly all through the hard weeks of winter; or the schoolgirl gives her doll-money and relinquishes her weekly sweets to buy a bit of bread for some hungry Lancashire maiden. Conscience can apportion well; but when the selfish sonl begins to truckle with conscience, the proportion has a small chance of being rightly wrought out. An Inland Revenue officer would do it far more impartially.--JACOB.

Government aid would have many advantages over private help. If the public bounty were granted, it would be given in such a form as to insure sufficient and efficient support to the sufferers ; it would be systematically distributed, carefully looked after, and well guarded. Government is at present sbirking its true responsibilities, and throwing upon the general philanthropy of the public, the duty of protecting the vast mass of life at risk in the districts of Cottondom. It is now taxing the generous, to relieve itself from the embarrassments of the times. It is using up

the subventions of charity to save itself from the unpopularity of “higla estimates." The cowardice of Government is trasting in the bravery of christian philanthropy, and is using the public feeling as an excuse for its own inaction. Let us have the responsibility fastened on the right place and persons, and let the sacred lives of British subjects at home get a small share of the vast revenues of Britain expended so freely in the protection of British life and property abroad.—T. GOODMAN.

A Government grant would meet the exigencies of this calamity better than trusting to the uncertain offerings of the public; for in this case, if sufficient were not placed at the disposal of the various committees who dispense relief, the consequences would be disease and death to thousands of men who are willing to work for their living; and the guilt of this happening would lie at the door of no one in particular. But if Parliament voted a sum of money, the responsibility would then rest on the shoulders of the Government.--R. T.

The amount of relief bestowed by the committee to each person is so small, that it is barely sufficient to keep soul and body together; and the cause of this insignificant dole is owing to the fear that the public will grow tired of giving in sufficiently large donations as to justify them in increasing the present allowance. The London Committee, consequently, do not pay out at the same rate as they receive money, but have invested a large amount in consols, to provide for the time wheu much smaller amounts will flow into their coffers.-S. S.

The relief would be more fairly distributed, and the work more systematically performed, if the Government took the superintendence. For by the present plan of divided authority, some receive aid from two funds, whilst others fail in attracting the attention of any dispensers of the public alms.-ALPHA.

The Inquirer.

QUESTIONS REQUIRING ANSWERS.

346. In Sydney Smith's essay on Counsel for Prisoners, he mentions a judge then living who never sentenced a prisoner to death without first giving profound attention to all the circumstances of the case in retirement, and seeking direction of God. Who was this judge?-S. S.

347. What is the best course to be pursued by one who desires to become fully equipped for the sacred ministry, who has all his time at his own disposal, who will not spare any pains to attain his object, but who suffers continually from wandering thoughts and idle speculations ?--NECESSITAS.

348. Would you be kind enough to inform me where I could get, and the probable price of, " The History of Sacred Metres”?--A. C.

349. Would some kind reader inform me where I may procure one copy of the Scriptures in French, and another in German, and the price? Also name a work or two, in either language, suitable for sabbath reading, where procurable, with price, &c.-FRANCOGERMAN.

350. How does the cryophorus act? S. S.

351. Would any of your readers furnish the names of public writers authentically known to be, or to have been, unable, either from nervousness or other infirmity, or over-consciousness, to speak in public?—R. D. R.

ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS. 338. The following notice of Dr. D'Aubigné's new work on the “ History of the Reformation in Europe in the time of Calvin," has been issued by the Messrs. Longman, in explanation of the new work by the Genevese theologian, and may satisfy “S. S." pro tem., vizi -"A comparison of the nations which have received the Reformation of Luther

with those who adhere to that of Calvin (as Switzerland, Holland, England, Scotland, &c.), shows that the latter have been more firm in their faith, and more active in the propagation of the Gospel, while they have carried out more fully the development of social life, especially in all that relates to constitutional liberty. This distinction has been carefully brought out by Dr. D'Aubigné in his new work on the Reformation, the first and second volumes of which will appear in the present autumn.

He has devoted a part of these two forthcoming volumes to Geneva, the centre of the new phase of the Reformation, as Wittenberg had been to that of Luther. The struggles of the first Huguenots in this city, at the beginning of the sixteenth century, to maintain their independeace and their ancient freedom, may be said to have initiated the Reformation. Geneva was the tirst ecclesiastical principality in Europe which fell to make way for liberty, as Rome will be the last. The energy of the freemen of Geneva recalls the heroic times of the old republics; and the fate of those who fell martyrs for freedom teems with human interest. In another part of the work, the author narrates the history of the Reformation in France during Calvin's sojourn in that country, from 1525 to 1536, in which year he went to Geneva. The character of Calvin has been hitherto very imperfectly understood; and after the lapse of three centuries, the time seems come that the great reformer of Geneva should cease to be regarded solely as a cold theologian--that we should appreciate him as a man of warı heart, kindly feelings, and estimable personal character. The forthcoming work throws, it is believed, a new light on bis conversion, which is not less striking than that of Luther, and on his first years of Christian

activity, of which few, even to the present time, know the most interesting circumstances. The author has availed himself of documents recently discovered, and is thus able, for instance, to give the celebrated discourse which Calvin wrote at the age of twenty-four, and which was read by the rector of the University of Paris in 1533, at the opening of the university year, when it is well known that both the rector and Calvin were obliged to flee from Paris.

"Other subjects, which have not yet received a satisfactory explanation, are placed in a clear light ; and among these may be specified the relations of Francisl. of France with the Protestant

princes and doctors of Germany. It is proved by official documents, that Francis, notorious for his worldliness and his persecution of the Reformed Christians, was at that time ready to follow the example of his friend Henry VIII. of England, and actually submitted to the Sorbonne, at Paris, a confession of faith nearly approaching to that of Augsburg. On all these points, and on several collateral topics of enduring historical interest, it is believed that Dr. D'Aubigné's forthcoming volumes will afford abundant proof of much successful research."S. N.

The Societies' Section.

THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. Ar the first meeting of the Royal dames of the celebrities of literary and Society of Edinburgh for the present scientific history urges us to give place session, the following interesting par- to the following extracts from the ticulars regarding the history and elder report of his able and excellent inaumembers of this ancient association gural address: were given inter alia in an opening * Guided by an interesting passage in address delivered by Jarnes David the life of Lord Kaimes, it would appear Forbes, D.C.L., Principal of the United that the germ of the Royal Society was College of St. Salvador and St. Leonard, to be found in the Rankenian Club, in the city of St. Andrews, one of the instituted in 1716 for literary social vice-presidents of the society, and a meetings, and which had the unusual gentleman of extensive repatation as duration (for such associations) of an author on scientitic subjects. He is almost sixty years. That expired in the youngest son of Sir William Forbes, 1774, and numbered many eminent Bart., of Pitsligo, was born 1809, called men among its members; but no publito the bar 1830, elected Professor of cations were known to have proceeded Natural Philosophy in the Univer- from this club. Contemporary in part sity of Edinburgh (at which he had with it was the Society for the Improvestudied) in 1833, and succeeded Sir ment of Medical Knowledge, instituted David Brewster as Principal, the office in 1731. The six volumes of Transacbe now holds, in 1859. He is the tions, however, which terminated in anthor of the Dissertation on Mathe- 1744, gave no clue to the construction matics and Physics in the eighth edition of the society, and little was known of of the Encyclopædia Britannica, its office-bearers, excepting that the * Travels in the Alps,” “Norway and secretary was the first Professor Monro, its Glaciers," &c., &c. The general who was a large contributor to its able interest of his remarks in recalling the papers, from the publication of which

the wide-spread reputation of the Edinburgh Medical School might be dated.” Principal Forbes then adverted to the Philosophical Society of Edinburgh, which published volumes in 1754, 1756, and 1771, and of which the second Professor Monro and David Hume were for some time secretaries. “ The Philosophical was the immediate parent of the Royal Society, which took its rise in a meeting of the Professors of the University on the proposition of Principal Robertson, towards the end of 1782, and the last survivor of the original body was Sir William Miller, Lord Glenlee, who died in 1846, in his ninety-first year. The society started at once into vigorous existence. The members were divided between science and literature, giving 101 to the former, and 114 to the latter. The earliest period of the society was marked by The efficiency of the literary department, and the first two volumes showed a substantial if not a precise equality in the extent of the published contributions devoted to literature and to science. In less than twenty years, however-indeed, in little more than ten-the activity of the literary class was sensibly impaired, for the great men of letters who lent the weight of their names to the society bardly maintaiped its reputation by their pens. From the paucity or absence of literary papers, the distinction between the two classes had almost entirely disappeared; but notwithstanding this, the form of a literary class, baving presidents, vicepresidents, and a special secretary, was continued down till 1827, when, from no other cause tban the want of communications by literary men, it was abandoned. But that was no reason why the substantially literary character of the society should not be restored, as they were all most anxious to see it; but that could only be by the individual efforts of the literary gentlemen who ought to compose that class.” The Principal then proceeded to consider what changes the progress of science or of society rendered necessary or de

sirable in the working of associations such as the Royal Society, and how far such changes are safe and prudent. “The Florentine Academy was an excellent type of what a physical association of the seventeenth century was and ought to have been. The members collected apparatus, they had a laboratory, they furnished funds for these, and the associated philosophers, who were select in number, met to witness the experiments, and to argue upon the conclusions to be deduced from them. The Royal Society of London, as well as the lesser societies from which it sprung, took a precisely similar course. They had a paid operator, and editor of their Transactions, and they remitted to individual members or small committees to try experiments, and to report the results to a succeeding meet. ing. This seemed to be the most perfect constitution of a society for investigating nature which they could well imagine. It bore a close analogy to the Philosophical College of Bacon --to Solomon's House in the allegory of the New Atlantis,' which was generally believed to have been really an antecedent, in the way of suggestion, to the formation of the Royal Society of London ; but it was now less practicable because of the large numbers of persons belonging to such societies—the minute subdivisions into which the sciences are now split rendering the perfect comprehension of one science alone almost the occupation of a life, and the fact that, nowadays, the hard work of science was not done by men in their collective capacity as associations. We rarely find even two philosophers engaged in a investigation. Another cause," he went on to say, “is the alteration of domestic habits in some important particulars. Most of the older societies commenced in clubs, which met at taverns, in conformity with the all but universal usage of the period. The Philosopbical Club' met in 1649 at the Bull's Head, in Cheapside; and the germ of the Royal Society of Edinburgh was a

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