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results. Soon after the Trojan war Greece began to swarm.
With the death of her last king, Codrus, Athens began her splendid Ionian colonization in Asia Minor. The Æolians settled in the same field, and in the Ægean Isles. The Dorians and Achæans proceeded westward to form settlements in Italy and Sicily. Grecian settlements were formed also on the eastern and northern shores of the Euxine, and beyond the Crimea. Natural sympathies were the sole bond between Grecian colonies and the mother states. The leaders of the emigrants became the heads of the colonies, and their successors the rulers of rising and flourishing independent states. Athens, in the pride of her power, attempted to maintain, by exaction of tribute, a permanent connection. But, in general, independence of the mother states was both asserted and conceded.
Within a period of two centuries, Syracuse and Agrigentum in Sicily; Tarentum and Locri in Italy; Ephesus, Smyrna, and Miletus in Asia, besides numerous insular settlements in adjoining seas, marked the course of classic emigration. In power, opulence, and refinement, these colonies soon rivalled the parent states. According to some writers, the Ionian settlements were the real nursery of Grecian literature. Hecatæus, the historian, was a native of Miletus, and Anacreon of Teos. Herodotus wrote in the Ionian dialect of the colonists. The earliest Greek philosophers were of the Ionian school, and were natives of colonies. Pythagoras settled at Croton, a Greek settlement in Italy, and established the Italian or Doric school. The school of Thales was also of colonial origin.
Out of the twelve flourishing states in Asia Minor, formed on the principle of independence of the mother states, we may take Miletus as a specimen of prosperity. Herself a colony, she became the founder of seventy-five towns or cities, which rivalled Greece in arts, luxury, and refinement. Lycia, with an area of some two millions of acres only, had thirty-six cities in the time of Herodotus. Pliny asserts that at one time it could boast of not less than seventy cities. The ruins of some of them still attest the magnificence of Grecian colonization. After some two hundred years of connection of the East and West Indies with Britain, these dependencies have nothing to show that can stand comparison with the magnificent edifices which existed at Aphrodisias, Arycanda, Calynda, Cadyanda, Mylosa, Myra, Patara, Phellus, Pinare, Sidyma, Stratonicia, Tlos, and Xanthus.
Take, again, the insignificant island of Ægina, which, from a sterile rock, was transformed into a hive of industry. On an area of some twelve square miles, its slave population has been estimated at about half a million. Its fleets came laden with provisions from the shores of the Black Sea, the valley of the Nile, and from Cyrene. It had mercantile factories in Egypt. Its wealth and warlike resources, inconceivable to even Saxon colonizers, were sources of grave apprehensions to larger but weaker states. The sea-gull had made it a guano rock ; Grecian independent colonization converted it into a vast emporium of commerce.
Look at Asia Minor, with its great extent of sea-board, its numerous and beautiful salt and fresh water lakes, with its rapid growth in opulence and power, in art and literature, with its colonial settlements formed by the emigrants of some thirty different nations, and you hare a conntry and a population resem. bling in many respects the once United States of America, but differing in one—in this, that the Ionian colonies required no Washington to develop their resources, and to make them a great, powerful, and happy community.
From the banks of the Indus came the first inhabitants of Ethiopia, who in their continued migrations along the Nile peopled Lower Egypt; and, coasting along Syria, formed colonies in Phænicia and Greece. Under Joshua and the Hebrew Judges, the Phænicians and the Canaanitish races gradually spread along the sea-board of the Mediterranean. From Cyprus and Rhodes they sent out bands of emigrants to Greece, Sicily, Sardinia, Africa, and Spain, and probably to Britain. Hamilcar and Hannibal led colonists from Carthage into Spain. These Phænician settlements rose into independent and sovereign states. The principle of their colonization was substantially the same as that of the Greeks. Bound by no political ties, Carthage was a friendly rival, but no foe to her mother city, Tyre. The daughter sent her annually a vessel freighted with rich presents, with votive offerings, the firstfruits of her revenues, and tenth of the spoils taken in war. Cambyses was thwarted in his designs because his Phænician sailors shrank from the sacrilege of war upon Tyre; while English sailors in American frigates fought against England, which wished to make the connection between the colony and the mother country permanent. Carthage, in reciprocation, opened an asylum to the Tyrians when their city was besieged by Alexander ; while the late United States open an asylum to England's bitterest foes in Ireland. In the one, no permanent political connection was sought or allowed; in the other, a Walpole with a Stamp Act, a Rockingham with the principle of compulsory taxation, a Lord North with tax on glass, paper, and tea, raised up a Washington, a Lafayette, French sympathies, Irish fraternization, and Russian alliances-all against the mother country.
The principal field of Phænician colonization was in North Africa, where Utica, Leptis, Hippo, and Carthage rose into great commercial importance. Passing over their European settlements, we notice Carthage, the finest result of ancient colonization on free and independent principles. The life of this world-famous city was free trade, which embraced the limits of the known world, and of worlds known only to Phænician sailors and merchants. All her citizens, like the Dutch at Amsterdam, regarded trade as no dishonour. Her princes were merchants, her great men were manufacturers. Her citizens retired, like their modern imitators in Britain, to their parks and country seats to pass the evening of life in rural enjoyments. For war they subsidized foreigners. Greece contributed her bands of sturdy warriors. The Balearic Isles furnished them with expert and deadly slingers. Spanish infantry and fierce Numidian horsemen mingled in the ranks of her mercenary army. Her gold and silver mines in Spain, and copper ore from Cornwall, enabled her to purchase alliance with powerful states, build and equip formidable navies and splendid commercial fleets. Her government excited the admiration of the world, Aristotle wrote in its praise. During four centuries no civil commotion disturbed the peace, no domestie despot trampled upon the rights of citizenship; no Tyrian Walpole, or Sidonian Rockingham imposed the badge of servitnde upon the commonwealth of Carthage. Abroad, the skill of her naval commanders, and the supernatural daring of her military chiefs, spread the terror and the glory of her name. Rome had but one rival, and that rival was Carthage.
These Tyrian colonists were not illiterate men. Mago embellished his military prowess with the refinements of literature. His treatise on agriculture, in twenty-eight volumes, was translated by order of the Roman senate. Hanno's account of his circumnavigation of Africa is still extant in Greek. Terence, educated at Rome, was a Carthaginian by blood.
Three great colonizing powers have passed under review-the Romans, the Greeks, and the Phænicians. With the first, a permanent connection of the colonies with the mother country was the sole aim of their gigantic but vicious system of colonization ; with the second and third, the basis of the system was no artificial, politieal tie, but the bond of natural sympathies, language, religion, and mutual interests. Take the results of these opposite systems, and ancient history unequivocally declares that the permanent connection of the mother country with her colonies is not desirable.
In our next article we shall demonstrate that this verdict is not subject to any material modification when tested by the results of modern colonization.
A HAPPY NEW YEAR. The old year had not yet gone when it was almost forgotten. It is true tbat letters were still headed with the accustomed “1862;" that entries were made in the ledger and cash-book in its name ; but that was all. Matters of business or pleasure, to take place in the future, had relation to the New Year. The booksellers' windows were loaded with almanacks and diaries to chronicle its every day; annuals, and souvenirs, and forget-me-nots, beautifully bound and elaborately decorated, were got up to do it honour, and to form suitable presentation volumes on its advent. The confectioner and the toymaker exhausted their resources at the command of their patrons, who gave feasts to their friends on its opening days, and toys and sweetmeats to their little ones. Public amusements were made specially attractive, in anticipation of the hosts who would then, if at any time, seek recreation and diversion. The old and careworn, renewing their youth in the young year, put from them grief and trouble, and with the youngest, thought only of joyousness and hilarity. And then, when the year dawned—the first day of the New Year—the first moments of the New Year, indeed, were devoted to time-out-of-mind customs. The god or goddess presiding over its destinies, propitiated only by those of a dark countenance, commanded that on that day doors should first be opened and dwellings entered by those who were not "fair or very fair," but who bore some resemblance to Shakspere's dusky Moor. Then, when the door was opened, and the dwelling entered, the hearty words, “A happy New Year!” would ring right joyously in the hearts of its occupants; and thoughts of the future, with no clouds or storms darkening its horizon, would, for the moment at least, dawn upon their cheerful spirits.
As the day passed on, groups of men and boys would be observed pressing into the dwellings of those who had a reputation for being cheerful and generous, uttering, in loud and good-humoured tones, their wishes for "
a happy New Year.” Even the little girls, taught only to amuse themselves with their playmates on the morning of the New Year, betook themselves to the new, and, as it would seem, congenial employment of wishing their neighbours “ a happy New Year.” And even the paupers, the occupants of the workhouse and the almshouse, would taste for that day, at least, some of the comforts and nourishing meals which previously had an existence only in their imagination ; surely they were right in wishing each other "a happy New Year!" ---for who had so much need of one ?
On that morning, too, how many heart-sores were healed! Heartaches and festerings which had corroded and sickened many of the hours of the old year, with a better mind and a more generous purpose, would be spirited away to give place to mutual good wishes for “ a happy New Year.” The most sacred of God's altars -the altars of the home and the fireside-glowing with the holy fervour of a father and mother's prayers, had resting upon them the special benizon of the God of all grace, and of all gracious gifts. Well might they anticipate, judging from the calm confidence with which they were possessed, that their children would enjoy “a happy New Year." * On that first morning of the New Year, when a brother, forgetting his waywardness and fretfulness, presented his sister with a token of his affection, and she returned it with some mark of her love, it might surely be surmised that they had entered upon “ a happy New Year.”
But not to all did the New Year of 1863 usher in joyous hopes and pleasurable anticipations. Tens of thousands of families in the New World, having lost a father, a brother, or a son, in the suicidal struggle rending the nation to its centre, can anticipate no happiness in the New Year. Be the war ended as speedily as it may, no power on earth can restore to them that loved presence which was at once their stay and comfort. How often in the old year did many a mother gaze proudly upon her boy, anticipating for him a position of eminence and of trust! He went to the wars, and was soon numbered with the victims of the national folly. What will supplant the recollection of that boy in the heart of his mother? No; the New Year must be for her one of mourning and lamentation; and no wonder if, like one of old, she refuses to be comforted. But more than that ; severe as the loss may be, it is more severe when the husband and father, shot down in the strife, renders his wife & widow and his children fatherless. What happiness does the New Year bring to the home of that widow and those fatherless children ? No; the New Year will bring for them a largess of sorrow and increased accumulations of woe. But if, in the national decimation, some families experience the singular fortune to lose none of its members, they still cannot escape scathless ; they must lose the friendships of some of those with whom they were delighted to associate; they will have their hours of social ease and relaxation embittered by the absence of some loved face; and their sources of comfort must also be dwarfed and curtailed by the inexorable taxman, to pay the expense of the national madness.
But not only in the New World does the New Year present a dark and lowering aspect; the Old World has its troubles, and its many sources of sorrow. Tens of thousands of operatives, who would cheerfully follow their accustomed callings, as the result of the American war are shut out from their factories and workshops, and are compelled to become recipients of the national almsgiving. Many of them had stored up a little board of savings, which soon vanished, ere yet many weeks of the cotton famine had passed ; and then the stock of comfortable clothing, bought in brighter and happier days, was carried piece by piece to the pledge office. Did the New Year's day dawn joyously for them? As they retraced their accustomed steps to the mill and workshop door, finding it closed, and the whole place cold and dreary; and then, on returning to their homes, finding a provision made for them just to keep life in, what hopes or heart-boundings could they have towards the New Year! True, they might be reminded that the “ darkest hour is just before the dawn, and many other "saws” and apposite sayings; but they could point to the war still going on, with all its fierceness and madDess, and demand to know why they should hope! No doubt, even for Lancashire, the American war will have its blessings. It will create the supply from other markets, of the raw material, so that in the future, if it shall so please the Americans to waste their national life in war,
the workers in England's cotton districts may look on without a consciousness that the struggle involved the loss of all their physical comforts, the wasting of their little stores of earnings, and the destruction of their hopes. So, like grim poverty, the war has a blessing
to offer for its wrong. Shakspere, who has chronicled every sentiment worth preserving, says,