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student in a good style. But it is obvious much study will be required : a thorough mastery of style is the achievement of a life. All the past volumes of the British Controversialist contain important bints on this topic. “ Thesis" should consult them.-SCRIBE.
The acquisition of a good style is not easily obtained, and there is only one mode of acquiring it, namely, of reading the works of the best prose and verse writers, and modelling your style by them. This is the work of some years, and “ Thesis ” will find that to be a thorough scholar in the English language is not attainable without a long span of drudgery. Concerning what works to read, we leave to his own judgment, as he will probably know as well as we do ; but if he cannot obtain the works of Addison, Macaulay, &c., let him read everything that comes in his way; and, provided he does not copy the style of the lower class periodicals, he will do well. For a general knowledge of the English language we would recommend Adams' « English Language," or Latham's " Handbook of the English Language.” We have read both, and according to the use
“ Thesis" wishes to make of them, they should be applied. “The English Language," by Dr. Adams, of University College, London, is a work we think would answer “Thesis'" purpose; its only fault is, perhaps, its omission of the rules of prosody. Dr. Lathum's book contains rather too much of what would be to him the more Oseless parts of the language; but an especial point in it is composition. If " Thesis” gets both of these books, be will know more of the English language than the generality of people.-MARWOOD H.
381. We wish to recommend “A Bewildered Student," "The Scbool History of England," an excellent book, and one, we believe, that is almost universaily used. He will not need more history than it contains for any ordiDary examination. With regard to elementary scieuce, he will not find a
better or cheaper work than Cassell's “ Popular Educator," which not only embraces science, but also several other things that would be highly necessary for any well-inforined person to know. Should his knowledge already extend beyond these, we have no doubt "the Editor" will, with his usual kindness, forward him our address on application, when at any time we shall be happy to render him all the assistance in our power.-MARWOOD H.
In the first volume of the British Controversialist there are several courses of reading recommended for different classes of students. To these, and to the papers on Self-culture, Reading, and Study, which gem and jewel the pages of this thinking man's magazine in every volume, we would refer the in. quirer. It constitutes of itself a wbole " library of useful knowledge." But lest our friend may not have these volumes at band at present—though we would ad vise him to become possessor of them as soon as possible-we shall advise a very brief course here.
Religion.—TAE BIBLE, read with a Bible cyclopædia, and consulted by aid of a concordance-daily.
History.-Charles Knight's “England;" Eadie's " Early Oriental History;" Grote's “Greece;" Merivale's
Rome;" Gibbon's " Decline and Fall;" Bonnechose's “France;" Spalding's Italy;" and Prescott's Robertsoa's America."
Science.-Lardner's " Museum of Science and Art."
General Literature.— Pope's "Homer," Dryden's “Virgil," Shakspere, Wright's “Dante," Lewes' “Life of Goethe," Griswold's “ Poets of America," Chambers' “ Cyclopædia of Literature," Burns, and Moore; the novels of Scott, Dickens, Thackeray, Defoe, Fielding, &c.; the British essayists; modern poets according to taste.
This course of reading, which (es. cept the first) might be accomplished in two years by the judicious employ. ment of two hours per diem--allowing
for abstract-making, reviewing, and cri- has not bad that early training which is ticism,—would make a student pass absolutely necessary to a high place in fair muster among men generally well the classical; as for the mathematical read. In our day it is impossible to be tripos, I cannot speak so definitely, but, homo unius libri; nor was the saying knowing the severe competition for ever intended to have a literal applica- high places here, as well as in the tion or use. The phrase is only a for- classical, I should think early traincible wayof naming a thorough student- ing is almost as necessary; though I one who so uses each book as if there hear that mathematics are “fagged" up Fere no other, and so masters the whole much more readily : and as to low meaning and relations of its contents. places—say third classes—the position Every library should contain a diction- is not worth the strain that it would ary and a biographical dictionary; cost one who enters late into the arena. every work read sbould be read after But to answer R. S.'s questions in gaining as much knowledge of the order:1. I would recommend Pemwriter's age and doings as possible; and broke, St. Peter's, or Jesus'. 2. The all words not readily and accurately expenses as estimated by Latham arefamiliar ought to be sought in the lowest estimate, £125; average, £180; lexicon, and the several meanings there highest estimate, £250 per year. 3. A given ought to be substituted for the poll man, or an ordinary degree man, word in the sentence, until the right can obtain his degree with a very small signification has been discovered. acquaintance with the studies that Earnest and thorough (not limited) honour men carry to such an astonishstudy is the great need of the present ing height: you can go up without day.-R. M. A.
knowing anything, but you cannot pass 382. The choice of a college really the first examination, which takes place is not of much importance with respect a year and a half after entrance, witbto the advantages they afford for men out a good knowledge of arithmetic, who go out in the poll, or take but an three books of Euclid, a small book of ordinary degree. Trinity, perhaps, is Paley's“Evidences," one of the Gospels in the best
, and offers every advantage Greek, and a Latin and Greek treatise --that the smaller ones do, yet it is rather such as two books of Horace, and the more expensive. Juba's is the cheapest, same of Xenophon's Anabasis: these are yet it is looked down upon, and its meu easily crammed up, and no men except are considered a sbade lower than those the idle get plucked. Should N. S. of other colleges. Queen's and Catha- wish any other information respecting rine Hall should be avoided for the the colleges, &c., or the emoluments same reason. Trinity Hall is expensive. they offer, I would recommend him to The other colleges, as far as I know, vary consult the "Student's Guide to tbe but little in their advantages or ex- University of Cambridge” (59. 60.), or penses. If N. S. hopes to take honours, if he is in doubts about his work, and is either mathematical or classical, there particularly anxious for advice thereon, may be some little advantage in the he may correspond with me through choice, but, judging from his ignorance the Editor of this Magazine.--ELPISof university intelligence, I presume he TICOS.
The Societies' Section.
REPORTS OF MUTUAL IMPROVEMENT SOCIETIES. The “ Orange Street Chapel Mental and that the essays read had displayed Improvement Society" closed its fourth a considerable amount of talent and session, with a soirée, on Tuesday research, and their composition much Evening, the 28th April, 1863. The literary ability. It was also stated that room in which it was held is a small a movement was on foot for establishing space parted off from one end of the "Union" of the various societies of chapel, and is at all times very incom- this description, upon the plan of the modious for the purposes of a public Sunday School Union," and that a meeting. On the occasion referred to, "prospectus ” would shortly be issued. however, it had been made to assume Probably we shall have more to comquite a festal and elegant appearance, municate upon this matter on some avd to form an attractive feature of the future occasion. The meeting was subevening. The walls were draped with sequently addressed by the Rev. Job curtains, and adorned with numerous Marchant, of Kennington, who, in an excellent engravings, kindly lent for the interesting and able speech, dilated upon occasion, besides being tastefully fes- the importance of a right cultivation of tooned with evergreens and artificial the powers of the mind, as well as a white and red roses; whilst the tables careful attention to the higher demands were fragrant with the perfume from a of man's “reasonable soul." Short profusion of plants and flowers of rare speeches were also delivered by Messrs. and choice description. The well-fur- Bright and Skegg, members of the sonished "trays,” supplied by the ladies, ciety, whilst the humorous original propresented quite a glittering and costly ductions of two others served to impart appearance; and the materials for a re. liveliness and spirit to the meeting. past were of the best, and in abundance. One of these latter was really a very After the tables had been cleared, the clever and talented paper, by Mr. J. President, the Rev. R. E. Forsaith, oc- Price, read by the secretary, which excupied the chair, and delivered an ap- cited much mirth, and gave universal propriate address. From the report, satisfaction. During the evening, an wbich was commendable for its unusual efficient and well-trained choir sang brevity, we learnt that the present several carefully selected pieces of number of members is ninety, which music, which, with a trio and a readwas stated to be a decrease upon pre- ing from Shakspere's Henry VIII. (the vious years: the causes for this were latter, bg-the-bye, scarcely audible), not traceable to anything in the society served to vary and enliven the meeting, itself, but were regarded as the result and to relieve it from anytbing in the of events entirely beyond the control of least approaching to dulness. A patient its conductors. Notwithstanding this and appreciative auditory of nearly two decrease, the average attendance showed hundred persons, crowded together into a slight improvement, es compared with a space which ought only to bave held ibe three preceding sessions ; and the some 130, testified to the interest felt in discussions were said to have been taken tbis society, and to the successful efforts up and carried on with greater spirit, which bad been made to render this, the crowning act of their “fourth session" character; and that ere long it will rea most complete success.
sume the position which it had previwell for the future of bis Institution, ously held, of being one, it not the most and bave no doubt (as was intimated successful of the London Mental linin the report) that the present pume- provement Societies.-S. J. R. rical decline will be but of a temporary
Our Collegiate Course ;
OR, AIDS TO SELF-CULTURE.
1. How often may 43046721 be subtracted from 22876792454961, what remainder have you, and state the rule, or explain the reason of the working. 2. Given the divisor, 654321, the quotient, 7, and the remainder, 222222, to find the dividend. Explain the words in italics. 3. Given the nine digits reversed, to be divided by the pine digits in their natural order, to find the quotient and remasuder. Explain italics. 4. Wbat abbreviations may be employed in working the following sum, viz 6+24700000 divided by 1728000? Give the reasons. Write and explain the signs used in the four primary rules of arithmetic.
Commercial.—1. Which is the more profitable, to buy, as required, hats which cost 158., and last 9 months, or those which cost 128. and last 7 months? and what would be the advantage in money of wearing such bats durii g 20 years? 2. By buying 22 sbares in a mine at £6 each, and 78 at £1 4s., what would I lose if I so.d at £1 8s. per sbare? 3. If 5cwt 3 qrs. 14 lbs. cost £6 per cwt , what will be the cost of one pound's weight after a fall equivaleot to £7 168. 8d. on the whola? 4. Two persons purchase a vessel: the one gave £4,536 as his share of the price, the other. £3,464. After a time ihey gained £861),- how much of this should each receive?
III. Naine the largest and smallest
counties in England - Scotland Ireland. Name the chief rivers by which they are watered, and describe the chief towns in each. Arrange the counties of England in the order of their size; or Scotland and Ireland in the same way. Describe the British fisheries. Name the chief towns lying near the roadway from London to Holyhead, and mention the counties through which it passes.
IV. Who was regent after Edward IV.'s death? In what relations did he stand to the family of Edward IV.? Describe the events of 13th of June, 1483. What became of Lord Hastings? What means did the Duke of Gloucester take to excite the people to petition him to become og? Analyze Rowe's play, “ Jane Sbore," or Shakspere's ** Richard III.” Who supported Richard III. in his usurpation of the crown? Who was Henry Tudor, and what were his claims to the crown? What "historic doubts" bave been composed regarding this reign? Describe Buckingham's revolt, the progress of Richmond, and the death of Richard III.
V. Write a notice of the life and works of Gibbon, Paley, Reid, Blair (Dr. Hugb), or Adam Smith; of James Macpherson, Chatterton, Churchill, Beattie, or Sir William Jones; of Murphy, George Colman the elder, Cumberland, Sheridan, or Mrs. Cowley. What influence did the American war exerton English literature? What effect had Percy's “ Reliques" on Eng
lish literature? How is literatore popularized ? What social changes hastened literature into new forms?
VI. What are the categories? Cri. ticize them, and compare the ancient with the modern categories. How do the several sciences group themselves round the categories? Who are the chief critics of the old categories ? What are the predicables ? Define and illustrate each. Define the classes of genus and of species. Give the rules which regulate the use of these predicables. Show how their use is implied in each step of ideation. What are terms?
VII. What are synonyms, and wbat are the defects of style likely to arise from them, and what advantage do we derive from them? What law ought to regulate the use of derivative words? Wbat is a sentence? Name and define the parts of a sentence. What is a clause? Of how many classifications are clauses susceptible? Construct examples of a simple sentence; a complex sentence; conditional, causal, interential, comparative, and concessive clauses. In two complex sentences furnish instances of co-ordinate and subordinate clauses. What is the difference between grammatical and rhetorical style?
Read "Julius Cæsar," act ii., scene i, to the entrance of the conspirators. Explain the precise meaning in this passage of the words fault, cause, swayed, proof, degrees, wasted, genius, favour, prevention (or Milton's “Paradise Lost," as before]. PART IL-FRENCH, GERMAN, LATIN,
AND GREEK, 1. Theoretical.—What sound is given to q bnal-to qu? When is r silent? How is s final sounded; s between a vowel and & consonant, or two consonants; between two vowels ? Write six words in wbich t final is pronounced. Write four words in which x bas, lot, the sound of ks ; 2nd, of g8; 3rd, of 88 ; 4th, of .
Practical. Form first. - Parse the personal pronouns in the following sentences :-Je le vois; Nous avons
pris un cerf: Le roi vous donne cela; ils sentent; Elles dorment; Vous y êtes sujet; Nous en parlons; Je lui parle. Write out the simple possessive pronouns and the compound ones, in two forms, in both genders and numbers. Translate-Venez (come) avec nous; Je l'ai fait done) moi-même; A ma table et à la sienne; Je parle de leur jardin, et de vôtre; Le couteau avec lequel je coupe (cut) ma viande; Voici des maisons, laquelle voulez-vous acheter (do you wish to buy)? La table sur laquelle vous avez mis (put) votre pomme. Write twelve sentences.
Form second.— Translate and commit to memory-L'intelligence humaine étant infinie de sa Dature, exagère les choses qu'elle ignore, bien au-delà de la réalité. Homère est indubitablement le premier auteur de la langue Grecque. Après avoir observé quelle fut la sagesse des premiers hommes dans la logique, la morale, l'économie, et la politique, passons au second rameau de l'arbre métaphysique, c'est à dire, à la physique, et de là, à la cosmographie, par laquelle nous parvenons à l'astronomie, pour traiter ensuite de la chronologie et de la géographie, qui en dérivent. Construct twelve sentences.
Form third. - Colomb, continued in same manner as formerly.
II. Junior.-Translate-Gott ist der Schöpfer und Erhalter aller Dinge. Er hat Himmel und Erde erschaffen und Alles, was derinnen ist. In der Luft schweben die Wolken. Decline each noun. To each noun add a suitable adjective. Write into GermanHercules was the son of Jupiter and of Alcmeda; Our Father wbo art in beaven; I believe in God the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth.
Senior.-Continue" Undine,” Quote the German for-I will readily supply you with as good a supper and bed as my humble cottage can afford. Esplain -Mir ist ganz gebeuer zu muth; Biels stille; Allzuviel. Write in German, This house, the most beautiful edifice in the town, is for sale; The master of the house.