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he displayed ; we cannot, nevertheless, respect the man. We apply to Ignatius what Lord Macaulay said of his associate, Don Francis Borgia, -"Our applause is demanded for feats of bumility, prodigies of obedience, and raptures of elevation;" bát his biographers "seem to have assumed the office of penitential executors to the saint, and to challenge for his memory some of the disgust and contempt which, when living, he so studiously courted.” A man with the Bible before him, who yet professed to be guided by the practices of the most fanatical adherents of Rome ; who " sought to propitiate not mere mortal man only, but the Deity himself, by the most lavish promises ;" who pledged himself to perform three thousand masses in one day to move heaven and earth, is a man whom Protestants cannot afford to despise, but Papists alone, if even they, can respect. Such a soul may command the homage of a world that is dazzled by the mere greatness of genius, but can never attract the love and esteem of the Christian Church. “Such prodigies,” Macaulay observed, " whether enacted by the saints of Rome or by those of Benares, exhibit a sovereignty of the spiritual over the animal nature, which can hardly be contemplated without some feelings akin to reverence. But on the whole, the hooked fakeer, spinning round his gibbet, is the more respectable suicide of the two; for his homage is, at least, meet for the deity he worships. He whose name had been assumed by Ignatius and his followers, equally victorious over the stoical delusions and the lower affections of our nature, had been accustomed to repose among the domestic charities of existence, and to accept such blameless solaces as life has to offer to the weary and heavy-laden ; nor could services less in harmony with His serene self-reverence bave been presented to Him than the Fehement emotions, the squalid filth, and the lacerated frames of the first members of the Society of Jesus." And because Loyola "himself tolerated, encouraged, and shared these extravagances," the hooked fakeer is the more respectable of the two characters.

There are two men whose names will never be erased from the page of ecclesiastical history-Luther and Loyola. There are two historians and essayists whose writings will long continue to mould the opinion of the British nation-Macaulay and Ranke. Each of these bistorians has been struck with the points both of resem. blance and contrast between the champion of honest Protestantism and the champion of subtle, crafty, and immoral Jesuitism. Let us see the verdict of these master-minds on the respective characters of the men who headed the two great reformations of the sixteenth century—the Protestant and the Papal.

Ranke observes,-" We are here involuntarily reminded of the state of mental distress into which Luther, some years before Loyola, was plunged by very similar doubts. But these two remarkable men extricated themselves from this labyrinth by very different paths. Luther arrived at the doctrine of atonement through Christ, wholly independent of works. This afforded him the key to the Scriptures, and became the main prop of his whole system of faith. It does not appear that Loyola examined the Scriptures, or that any particular dogma of religion made an impression on his mind. As he lived only in his own inward emotions --in thoughts which rose spontaneously in his breast-he imagined that he

felt the alternate inspirations of the good and of the evil spirit.

One day he felt as if awakened from a dream. He thought he had sensible proof that all his sufferings were assaults of Satan. He determined from that hour to have done with his past life, never to tear open those old wounds, never again to touch them. It was not so much that his mind had found repose, as that he had formed a determination ; rather, indeed, an engagement entered into by the will, than a conviction to which the will is compelled to yield. It needed not the aid or the influence of Scripture-it rested in the feeling of an immediate intercourse with the world of spirits. In other words, Ignatius commenced his career as a mystic and an enthusiast. It was only because be stopped short on the verge of religious madness that he was saved from Bedlam.

" This resting on visions and visionary aids would," Ranke continues, "never have satisfied Luther. Luther would have no inspirations, no visions. He held them all, without distinction, to be mischievous. He would have only the simple, written, unquestionable word of God. Loyola, on the contrary, lived on fantasies and inward inspirations. He thought no one so well understood Christianity as an old woman who, in the midst of his torments, told him that Christ would yet appear to him. At first he could obtain no such vision, but now he thought that Christ, or the Holy Virgin, manifested themselves to his eyes of flesh. For him there needed no longer either evidence or Scripture. Had none such existed, he would have met death unhesitatingly for that faith, which before he believed, which now he saw." In relation to Christianity and Mohammedanism, Frederick Denison Maurice says, “ Plain men will be asked to declare which teaching bore clearest tokens of belonging to the earth; which of a divine origin” The same question in relation to Luther and Loyola will call forth from all our readers the answer we give,-Loyola was “ of the earth, earthy.” Luther, as symbolized in the Apocalyptic visions, was “a mighty angel come down from heaven, clothed with a cloud, a rainbow upon his head, and his face as it were the sun, and his feet as pillars of fire, and in his hand a little book, open”-that book which, Ranke says, Loyola did not even consult.

From the camp of the Protestant invaders "there arose," Macaulay says, " the war-cry of absolute mental independence; from the beleaguered host" of Rome, “the watchword of absolute spiritual obedience. The German pointed the way to that sacred solitude where, besides this worshipper himself, none may enter; the Spaniard to that innumerable company which, with one accord, still chant the liturgies of remotest generations. Chieftains in the most momentous warfare of which this earth had been the theatre since the subversion of Paganism, each was a rival worthy of the other

in capacity, courage, disinterestedness, and the love of truth ; and yet how marvellous the contrast! Luther took to wife a nun.

For thirty years together Loyola never once looked on the female countenance. To overthrow the houses of the order to which he be. longed, was the triumph of the Reformer; to establish a new order on indestructible foundations, the glory of the saint. The career of the one was opened in the cell, and concluded amidst the cares of secular government; the career of life of the other led him from a youth of camps and palaces, to an old age of religious abstraction. Demons haunted both: but to the northern visionary they appeared as foul or malignant fiends, with whom he was to agonize in spiritual warfare ; to the southern dreamer, as angels of light marshalling his way to celestial blessedness. As best became his Teutonic honesty and singleness of heart, Luther aimed at no perfection, but such as may consist with the every day cares, and the common duties, and the innocent delights of our social existence; at once the foremost of heroes and a very man. How remote from the 'perfection' which Loyola proposed to himself, and which, unless we presume to distrust the bulls by which he was beatified and canonized, we must suppose him to have attained ! Thus he stands apart from us mortal men, familiar with visions which he may not communicate, and with joys which he cannot impart. Severe in the midst of raptures, composed in the very agonies of pain; a silent, austere, and solitary man, with a heart formed for tenderness, yet mortifying even his best affections; loving mankind as his brethren, and yet rejecting their sympathy; eren while a squalid, careworn, self-lacerated pauper, tormenting himself that so he might rescue others from sensuality, and then a monarch reigning in secluded majesty, that so he might become the benefactor of his race; or a legislator exerting, though with no selfish purpose, an obedience as submissive and as prompt as is due to the King of kings."

"Heart and soul,” Macaulay adds, " we are for the Protestant. He who will be wiser than his Maker is but seeming wise. He who will deaden one half of his nature to invigorate the other half, will become at last a distorted prodigy. Dark as are the pages, and mystic the character, in which the truth is inscribed, he who can decipher the roll will read there that self-adoring pride is the headspring of stoicism, whether heathen or Christian. But there is a roll, neither dark nor mystic, in which the simplest and most ignorant may learn in what this perfection of our humanity really consists."

We, therefore, both admire and respect Luther: we admire Logola ; but it is an admiration which a Hindoo fakeer excites as much as the Roman Catholic saint.

We close this paper in the words of the writer above quoted, “Why consume many words in delineating a character which can be disposed of in three " Ignatius Loyola “was a fanatic, a Papist, and a Jesuit. Comprehensive and incontrovertible as the climax is, it yet does not quite exhaust the censures to which his name is obnoxious."

M. H.




AFFIRMATIVE ARTICLE.-I. The love of country and the pride of nationality have ever been considered the highest and noblest expression of civilized minds. In ancient times, to be a free-born Greek was the glory of the earliest pioneers of intellect and freedom. The Jew delighted in the thought that he was a Hebrew of the Hebrews. The great Apostle

of Christianity, in his bold appeal to the Roman Emperor, proved the talismanic power of the words, “I am a Roman citizen." While France has gloried in her eagles, and Italy has struggled, bled, and triumphed in her love of country, England can unite in her sons the excellences of all these expressions of love for fatherland, pride of birth, and devotion to the best interests of nationality, for

“ 'Tis a glorious charter, deny it who can,

That's breathed in the words, I'm an Englishman." The policy of the English nation has been of late years to give to all her subjects the rights of Englishmen, however widely spread over the earth's surface her colonies and dependencies may be ; her flag covers no slave, shelters no despot : it gives the fulness of freedom to all, both in thought, word, and act, only limiting the freedom of the individual to insure equality of freedom to every other individual-freedom to all, none daring to make another afraid. The Englishman's home is his castle ; his hearth is sacred, whether in the wilds of newly peopled colonies, where the rude log hut for a time shelters the honest toiler, or in the palatial residence of the self-raised city millionaire, and the titled noble, who traces a long ancestry, or boasts the high blood of ancient kings and princes. These inestimable privileges are possessed by no other single people; the blessings of all are united in the English race and nation ; while other nations are tempted to envy, their better feelings prompt them to emulate, to honour, and esteem them as examples most worthy of imitation.

We affirm that all under the sway of our beloved Queen possess the rights and privileges of Englishmen, whether at home or abroad, whether distinguished by the appellations, English, Irish, Scotch, Australian, Hindu, Canadian, or any other of the myriad of local names which our fellow-countrymen may bear. The law protects and preserves the personal liberty, private property, and religious freedom of each one.

Colonization, whether considered as a providential arrangement by which the human family is made to disperse itself over and occupy the whole face of the earth-which may be considered in some measure as a law of nature-or as an outlet for the surplus life and activity of old and densely peopled states, results in a permanent increase of the productive power of the world, an increase of the comfort and happiness of the human family. As such it has ever been encouraged by wise statesmen, and their efforts have constantly been directed to abridge its inconveniences, mitigate its evils, and perfect its adaptability to forward the social and intellectual progress of humanity.

It is our present duty to exhibit some special reasons in favour of colonization as a permanent and integral part of the policy of the British Government, to show that the permanent connection of the British colonies and the mother country is desirable-subjectively in relation to the mother country, objectively in relation to the colonies themselves. In pursuing our task we feel pleased to know that there can be no party-spirit, no political bitterness associated with a subject like this; it being our purpose to inquire which is the best means to produce the best end-the mutual comfort, happiness, and prosperity both of the mother country and her colonies.

Colonization is beneficial to the mother country, as it opens up a Fast field for the profitable employment of the capital and surplus labour of its people. In a thickly populated country it is possible, nay, is a fact, that capital and labour may increase much more rapidly than its own resources can profitably employ. The opening up of a new colony forms a fresh means for the employment both of capital and labour, extends the circle of their exercise, and contributes to the supply of a greater number of comforts and richer abundance of production. In this process of amelioration, the supply of labour at home being subdued in proportion to the demand, the value of labour rises, for the wider employment of capital proportionately increases its value; therefore both classes are benefited; and under wise control, that which is thus beneficial in the commencement must of necessity be increasingly beneficial in its permanent continuance, and that which is permanently beneficial must be desirable in proportion as its permanence is assured.

Colonization is beneficial to those who become colonists, that is, to the colony; as its connection with the mother country provides them with all the requirements they need in capital, labour, and the useful products of labour suitable to their wants, and fits them to profit by the bounteous resources nature invites them to develop. That which they could not provide for themselves is provided for them, in exchange for the wealth they possess, or may win from Mother Earth by the activity and energy which their new position demands from them. The more permanent the relation of reciprocal producer and consumer is, the more desirable is the permanent connection of mother country and colony,

The security of personal liberty and the rights of property are strongly in favour of the permanence of this relation; because, in a

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