תמונות בעמוד

has been striving from age to age, in the persons of kings, conquerors, &c., to obtain a real existence. We meet, however, with no former endeavour so consistently imagined or so successfully achieved. Loyola alone has shown the world what might be meant by the terms catholic union. “He alone has brought to perfection the process, often attempted, of welding hundreds of individual wills into so true a continuity of substance, that the volitions of a single mind should pass like galvanic currents through the whole, and become intelligible and effectual at the remotest distances." In the choice of his immediate companions Loyola was, no doubt, fortunate, and upon this, of course, depended the success of his enterprise. He had a rare intuitive knowledge of human nature; be could penetrate each man's disposition and estimate his capabilities at a glance; and this it was that caused the instruments chosen to be those, and those alone, who were adapted for his purpose. To acquire this spiritual dominion it was further necessary to educate youth ; they accordingly included this in their plan, and in it were, as their opponents are constrained to admit, very successful. We think, further, that Loyola entitled to admiration and respect for

4. The energy and perseverance displayed in his labours. We have noticed that on all occasions he seized the opportunity of preaching to those with whom he came in contact. His preaching was earnest, and, as an almost natural result, successful. Multitudes flocked to hear him. To all he gave counsel and advice, as far as he was able. He believed he had a great and important work before him, and he rested not day or night in his labours for its accomplishment. In Vicenza, where the eleven met in order, if practicable, to start for Palestine, they spent the interim in preaching to the inhabitants. It was preaching in earnest. They sallied forth in couples. Mounted on a little stool at the corner of a street, the preacher waved his bonnet, and in a loud voice summoned the people to attend. Many, attracted by the novelty of the thing, came; some, perchance, came to mock; and many others to be edified. The effect on all appears to have been much the same. After a few words from the speaker, all were hushed ; then a tear might be seen to trickle down a face brazened in iniquity; then convulsive sobs were heard ; and finally, many would force their way immediately to the front of the preacher, prostrate in body and mind, imploring assistance and advice. Many found peace and comfort to their souls ; many were reclaimed from a life of open profligacy to one of good works ; many who had become tainted with the heresies of Lutheranism were cured, and brought once more within the fold of the Church. Nor should this statement be doubted. We have seen in our own times the effect of earnest, fervent preaching, in the case of Gilpin, Wesley, and Whitfield. Loyola and his companions may not unjustly be called the Method ists of Romanism. But it was not only in preaching that Loyola showed the indomitable energy and perseverance of his mind. He sought to reform abuses; and, setting at it in earnest, was, as usual, successful. We may notice here, that when he first began to preach, he was not offended at the filthy rags of those who came to hear, as many before him had been, but that he listened, advised, and preached to all; though one of the first things he besought them was, to put away dirt, to cleanse their bodies, and mend their tattered garments. At Rome, Loyola by bis personal exertions effected great reforms in liturgical services ; induced more frequent and more devout attention to the sacraments of confession and the Eucharist; established and promoted the catechetical instruction of youth; and, in short, restored to Rome much of its vitality. Nor did his energy relax, but rather redoubled, after he was chosen General of the order. During Loyola's lifetime it required all his energy and vigilance to keep his society from being crushed by the fierce onslaught and unfounded calumnies of those most interested in its destruction, or from its becoming effeminate and useless, by yielding to the wishes of its well-meaning but mistaken friends. Loyola never wavered—was never found wanting. He was endued with an iron will, which neither poverty, nor imprisonment, nor even the world's contempt could overcome. He never for one moment lost sight of his end. He was like the skilful mariner, prepared alike for storms and calms ; like him, too, he had the sagacity to discern breakers ahead long before they reached him, so that he was not unprepared to meet them; but now with negotiation, now with persuasive entreaty, and anon with lofty command, he was enabled to steer his bark clear of rocks and quicksands, and had the good fortune to see his most ardent wishes realized. Again, we think Loyola entitled to admiration and respect for

5. The general benevolence and humanity of his actions.--His purpose was a grand and lofty one, his actions corresponded with it. This his bitterest enemies could not deny. They made an attempt, indeed, to prove his conduct immoral and flagitious, but signally failed, and were themselves covered with shame and dishonour as the reward of their labours. Nor do we think that it can be effectu. ally urged as an objection to his receiving our admiration and respect under this head, that he only performed such offices to further his own ends. His ends were, no doubt, furthered by so doing, inasmuch as he rose in the estimation of the people; but as we never find him parading his virtues, but rather concealing those actions which in the eyes of the vulgar would give him the reputation of a saint, we may conclude that he was sincere ere, and that he visited the sick and afflicted out of pity for their wretched condition. Christian charity, at all events, would enjoin us to believe so. The actions which fall most properly under this head are those where we find Loyola at the bedside of the invalid or dying, administer. ing words of consolation and comfort, or of exhortation and rebuke, to the despairing or impenitent. He made it his practice regularly to visit the sick wherever he was. This he did at Salamanca, Barcelona, Vicenza, Bologna, and Rome; and as far as he was able he ministered to their necessities, even if he had to beg for them. Thus, at Rome we find, during the famine there, that he and his companions, though they often felt the sharp thorn of hunger themselves, yet, being themselves straitened in funds for charitable purposes, they begged for the perishing, took them to such shelter as was at their command, carefully and tenderly ministered to the sick, and used the advantage which these acts of kindness afforded them for religious instruction. Hundreds, rescued from death by cold and hunger, were brought to repentance, and became lively members of the Church. In America, especially in Paraguay, we find the Jesuits christianizing and civilizing the natives, and instructing them in the arts and conveniences of social life, and governing them mildly, equitably, and well. We find Loyola going from Paris to Rouen on a visit to a sick countryman there, who had, moreover, robbed Loyola while living with him in Paris. In Rome many hospitals were opened by Loyola--the convent of Santa Martha, for abandoned women who wished to repent and reform their lives, and that of Santa Catharina in which poor and honest young girls found an asylum against temptation and seduction; and fatherless children of both sexes were received and carefully educated in two hospitals, which still exist in Rome. Loyola, then, was humane, compassionate, and charitable. His private character was moral and unimpeached. He treated his disciples with much kindness, and never denied them what he could grant without inconvenience. Is there not something to respect and admire in this ?

Jesuitism is so intimately connected with the name of Loyola, that we can scarcely separate him from the system of which he was the author; and a glance at it, as his masterpiece, seems necessary to a fair estimate of his character. It may be, and no doubt will be, objected, that Jesuitism has been a curse and not a blessing to Europe and every land where it has appeared, and that, as by their works and fruits we are to judge men, Loyola must have been bad and corrupt in morals, because the system of which he was the author has brought forth such evil fruits. We would admit the result, but deny the correctness of the reasoning. If we allow it as correct, the conclusion inevitably follows, that Loyola, at the time of establishing his society, was knowingly and designedly establishing a system which, however well it might accomplish its purpose for a time, contained within itself the germ of its own dissolution, and which, sooner or later, must operate to its destruetion. We must believe that a far-seeing mind, as Loyola's generally proved itself to be, propounded a system which could not fail to bring vice and immorality in its train, and draw down upon it the censure and opprobrium of the church it was designed to defend. Looking at Loyola’s previous history, his endeavours to make his society sure, his refusal to undertake anything likely to be hereafter prejudicial to it,-we do not think such a solution at all probable. On what principles, then, is it to be accounted for We observe, in the first place, that Loyola's mind was penetrating, but not philosophical; he possessed great adroitness in the management of human nature, but was lacking in the clearness and straightforwardness of a soundly constituted mind. He does not seem at all aware of the immorality of the scheme he was propounding, for he nowhere makes any apology for it. He never appears to have considered that the human soul may be lost, but that it cannot be sold or transferred; that conscience may be bound or deadened, but is incapable of being entrusted to the keeping of another. His principles were in the last degree false and immoral; but at the point of view whence he looked upon them, foreshortened from the low level of his own moral understanding, he saw none of their contrarieties ; he saw only their adaptation to a special end. Loyola, further, was destitute of any poetical imagination. Thus, his book of the Spiritual Exercises is the most formal, dry, and tedious work that can well be imagined ; not a line of pathos, of description, or of eloquence, to relieve the monotony of the whole. It is, as Cardinal Wiseman says, a practical, and not a theoretical work, and is, no doubt, well adapted for its purpose.

We do not pretend that Loyola was without faults, or that he never acted foolishly : he often did so; as, for instance, his retiring to the cave near Manreze, where he nearly brought his life to a premature close by his lengthened fastings and severe flagellations; his going through the towns of Italy begging from door to door, while his belt was well filled with gold, which he distributed to the beggars whom he met on the road. These, and many other similar actions recorded of him, if true-which in some instances we are very much inclined to doubt, they only appearing in the history of St. Ignatius--may in a great measure be charged on the system under which he was brought up. That this is so we can plainly discern in many of his actions, in which the emotions displayed were generated, fostered, and developed by the very nature of the religious services in which he engaged. Impulse is seen side by side with a clear and vigorous understanding, now impelling him to this side, now to that, yet never entirely gaining the inastery.

We have thus endeavoured to point out those qualities in Loyola’s character for which we think he is fairly entitled to our admiration and respect; of their validity or conclusiveness we leave our readers to judge for themselves. In the facts and events of his life we have rejected all those marvels, miracles, and highly coloured, overdrawn pictures, which go ao far to make up the deeds of the canonized, and most of which, if true, do in reality tell more against him than for him, though his adorers do not seem to see it in this light. Knowing the purpose for which they are inserted, we have not much difficulty in detecting and rejecting them, and determining what the man was as he really lived in the flesh. Loyola while living laid no claim to miracles. He worked, and worked earnestly, his motto being, "He who does well one work at a time does more than all." In conclusion, we believe Loyola to have been strictly conscientious in all his actions ; to have followed unflinchingly what he considered the path of duty; and to be deserving of our admiration and respect, if not as a great man, at least as a good Christian.

R. S. NEGATIVE ARTICLE.--I. IF asked whether Ignatius is Loyola, our answer

would be, Yes ; for Loyola is but the other name of Ignatius. But respect and admiration are not the same thing: Respect may rise into admiration, but admiration may exist without respect. I admire Blondin, but I can never respect him. I admire Napoleon Buonaparte, but I admire and respect Wellington. The association of two ideas, incompatible, in our opinion, of the character which gave birth to Jesuitism, compels us to take the negative side in this discussion.

Don Inigo Lopez de Recalde was of a noble Spanish family, and by natural temperament fitted to take a high place in the armies of Charles V. As a soldier it is impossible to limit the fame he might have acquired for the splendour of the deeds he was capable of performing in the shock of battle, in the siege of fortresses, in the sack of cities. A wound in both legs at the defence of Pampeluna diverted the energies of his romantic and visionary nature from the feats of arms to the tricks of Jesuitry: Compelled to a life of physical inaction, he solaced his mind and indulged his fancies by studying the romances of chivalry, the lives of St. Francis and St. Dominic, and the life of Christ. He rose from his couch a spiritual knight-errant. An imaginary lady—"no countess, no duchess, but one of yet higher degree,” in short, the Virgo Deipara--captivated his mind. To her he addressed the language of a passionate lover. For her he would shed his own, and bathe his sword in the life-blood of her foes. He took to his bed a chivalrous Spanish soldier-he left it a fanatical Papist.

This transition from a worldly to a spiritual knighthood is open to the suspicion that, since as a cripple he could not win renown, Loyola turned his attention to a field where broken legs were no obstacle. It was not remorse for his sins that induced him to abandon the ease and luxuries of the castle of Loyola, and to adopt the coarse fare of Mount Montserrat. It was not from strong and pure aspirations that he laid aside the lance and took to the pilgrim's staff. He had read the life of Christ, but he preferred the lives of fictitious saints. He found no disgusting austerities in the Gospel ; its pure and simple life had no charms for the chief of fanatics, and the founder and head of Jesuitism. He hung his shield before the shrine of the Holy Virgin, and swore in her service to undergo penances which would eclipse all that Rome prescribed, or her legends recorded. To obtain the pardon of his sins he scourged him. self thrice a day, and passed seven out of the twenty-four hours on his knees. Once from Sunday to Sunday he abstained from all food. We admire the inflexibility of purpose and the power of endurance

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