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THE PERMANENT CONNEOTION OF THE BRITISH COLONIES. 123 He was sincere. So was Saul of Tarsus, who, when he put the saints to death, vainly imagined that he did God service.

He was not destitute of wisdom in the choice of means for the attainment of his objects, but it was exerted for unworthy purposes. It was of that low kind which never rises to the designing of aught that is truly noble. It was wisdom of a sordid nature, such as we often see in some of our own countrymen, who have wisdom of a kind that enables them to amass riches, or to avoid the ill opinion of the world by deeply politic steps. But as to wisdom of a higher character, alas! in them it is wholly wanting. Their minds are neither cultivated, refined, nor expanded, but they are wofully cramped and besotted. There was a certain greatness in Loyola's scheme, but it was greatness in wickedness. His project was a masterpiece, but it was a masterpiece of evil. With respect to a mind of the cast of Loyola's, Macaulay, in his essay on Chatham, hits it when he says of the mind of Grenville,“ That small, sharp mind.”

Loyola had self-denial; but it was like the self-denial of all real Catholics, who, even while they are mortifying the flesh, are gratifying self in the highest possible degree, by thinking themselves exceedingly religious and meritorious in the performance of their deeds. Thus in Loyola, under the garb of self-denial, self was fostered, as the man who thinks within himself, “ How humble I am!" is at that moment on the pinnacle of pride. The desires of Loyola respecting the souls of men were an infatuation. We cannot, therefore, believe Loyola to have been either a great or a good man. But we believe that be was a pitiable dupe, and, as such, in no degree entitled to our admiration and respect.





AFFIRMATIVE ARTICLE.-II. We propose, first, to point out some of the advantages derived by an old country in possessing colonial dependencies; and, secondly, to show that when the colonies bave thrived, and become the seats of a moderately large population, that then it is not for the interest of either the mother country or the colonies to dissever the political connection existing between them.

The formation of colonies is among the oldest events handed down by tradition, or recorded in history: England was not the first among European powers that planted settlements in parts beyond Europe. She has now acquired by her own colonization, and by the conquest of the settlements of other nations, a more extensive dominion over colonies than any other country.

The advantages that accrue from colonial possessions to the mother country are the extension of the manufactures and the trade of the parent country by the demand for Home products which arises in the colonies, the consequent impulse given to industry in the old country, and the opportunities which labourers and small capitalists have of improving their condition by emigrating to a country where labour is wanted, and where land is to be had at a low price. Many of our colonies are desirable posts for protecting British commerce and shipping:

Another advantage may be said to be the establishment of penal colonies, where convicts can be employed on the public works, instead of being set free in England with a ticket-of-leave before the expiration of their sentences. But the chief motive for establishing colonies is, the desire of the Government to provide its surplus population and capital with a wider field for their energies and employment than they would possess if they remained in a thickly populated territory. Wben families from a civilized nation take possession either of a waste country, or of one so thinly peopled that the natives readily give place to the new settlers, that colony advances more rapidly in wealth and the comforts of life than any other human society. This prosperity of new colonies is easily accounted for when we consider that the colonists carry from the old country a superior knowledge of agriculture, and of other useful arts than is possessed by the savage, or half-civilized people they are about to supplant. Again, they carry with them some notion of the regular government under which they have previously existed, and they naturally establish a very similar system in the new settlement.

The effect of the colonial trade is to open a great, though distant, market for such parts of the produce of British industry as may exceed the demand of the markets nearer home. Agriculture is the proper business of all new colonies, the cheapness of land rendering this employment more advantageous than any other. England, on the contrary, is a manufacturing country, and one of the best uses of its colonies is to barter its skilled manufactures for the grain, wool, &c., from its colonies. English colonists have never get contributed anything towards the defence of the mother country, or towards the support of its civil government. On the contrary, they have hitherto been defended almost entirely at the cost of the old country. Thus, the most important part of the expenditure of Government providing for the defence and protection of our colonies has constantly fallen upon the revenues of the parent state, leaving only the very moderate amount required for civil government to be borne by the settlers. The advantages of being a colonial dependency of Britain, therefore, seem great. It is protected at the expense of others, and it is allowed to manage its own affairs, which it does by an Assembly of the Representatives of the people, who have the sole right of imposing taxes for the sup. port of the colony. To mention à particular instance, by way of illustrating the value of a modern colony, we name that in North America. There is no colony of which the progress has been more satisfactory than that of the English there. There the emigrant found plenty of good land, and liberty to manage bis own affairs in his own way-the two chief requisites for the prosperity of all new colonies. The general advantages which Europe has derived from the colonization of the American continent consist, first, in the increase of enjoyments; and, secondly, in the augmentation of its industry. The various products of America imported into Europe furnish the people of this continent with a variety of commodities which they could not otherwise have obtained, and so contributed to increase their enjoyments. The colonisation of America, it will be allowed, has contributed to augment the industry of all those countries which trade with it. The particular advantages which England derives from the colonies which belong to it are of two different natures : first, those common advantages which every empire derives from the provinces subject to its sway; and, secondly, those peculiar advantages which result from provinces of so peculiar a nature as the English colonies in the New World. These latter advantages may be called the trading facilities enjoyed by the mother country with its colonies. These advantages, in the case of the United States of America, are now lost to England, owing to the severance of the connection between the two countries ; and the American Congress has lately levied such a bigh rate of duties on imported goods, as would, if it were not for the anomalous state of affairs existing at the present time, practically exclude business transactions with Europeans. This policy has been adopted to protect the native manufacturer. Canada still belongs to England, and we have no cause to fear its Government pursuing the same mistaken policy, because it knows that Britain would be able to obtain redress.

We have endeavoured to show that the benefits are reciprocal between the old country and her colonies; but the question being raised whether the connection should be a permanent one, we reply in the affirmative, for the following reasons :--First, because most of the arguments which are urged in favour of the original colonization remain in force for ages to come. Secondly, because the only instance on record in modern times (the United States) where a colony has thrown off its allegiance to the British Crown has proved to be no blessing to its people. No one by a stretch of his imagination can conceive of any calamity as likely to have happened to the Americans in consequence of their remaining under the protection of England, like unto that which is now afflicting that unhappy people,-a calamity which will be felt to the last day of its existence as a nation. Were Canada to declare its independence, does any rational man believe it would be able to hold its own against its powerful Southern neighbours P No; withdrawal from the protection of England means, with her, absorption into the American republic.

A colony that has been treated with the consideration which Britain shows to those which are attached to it by ties of sympathy and common descent, is not justified in rising in rebellion against its protector. In ancient times it was argued by the Corcyræans, that “a colony ought to respect the mother country as long as the mother country deals justly and kindly by it; but if the colony be injured and wrongly used by the mother country, then the tie is broken, and they become alienated from each other, because colonists are not sent out as subjects, but as free men, to have equal rights with those who remain at home." If it once became a probable eventuality that English colonies would, in the course of time, sever the connection with the metropolis, or mother country, many capitalists would refuse to invest their money in our colonial dependencies, - thus greatly increasing the only drawback which now exists to the rapid progress of the colonies. To propose that Great Britain should voluntarily give up authority over her settlements, would be to propose such a measure as never would be adopted by any nation. Such sacrifices, though they might possibly be agreeable to the interest, are always mortifying to the pride, of every nation. The loss we are now sustaining by the United States no longer belonging to us is too apparent to require dwelling upon.

M. H. goes back to the history of ancient colonization by the Greeks and Romans to support the position he takes in this debate; but as their various systems are foreign to the subject in hand, we dismiss bis opening article, and await his views on the results of modern colonization.

R. R. NEGATIVE ARTICLE.-II. We closed our first article by a promise to show that a review of the modern colonial policy of Europe will negative the proposition in debate. To redeem our pledge, we have only to glance at the history of the principal colonial powers.

Modern colonization originated with the necessities of Italian commerce. Pisa, Genoa, and Venice established factories in Egypt and the Levant, the same in nature and design as our Anglo-Chinese seaports. The Genoese seized parts of the Crimea, and conducted their mercantile factories on principles that have been much commended; but the Venetian occupation of the lonian Isles was more military than commercial. The spirit of colonial enterprise could not, however, be evoked while commerce was in swaddling bands, trade confined to land carriage, and navigation to the coasting trade of the Mediterranean Sea. The discovery of the polarity of the magnet transferred traffic from land to water, and the tedious, cir: cuitous, and perilous coasting trade was exchanged for the bolder, safer, and more expeditious voyage on the ocean. The daring spirit of Henry the Navigator, the sagacity of Columbus, the foresight and firmness of our Maiden Queen in disputing the claims of Spain and Portugal to the sovereignty of all discovered lands in both

hemispheres, and the European mania for gold and glory, at last roused the spirit of modern colonization.

Venetian commerce with India, viâ Egypt, was too tempting a monopoly to escape the envy of Europe. To overreach the Italian, the Portuguese sought some other route to the East. Paradoxically enough, Columbus sought to get to the East by sailing to the West. Bartolomeo Diaz discovered the Cape of Storms ; Vasco de Gama rounded it, and his king gave it the name of the Cape of Good Hope. Military garrisons dotted the coast, first to protect their trade, and then to subjugate the natives. Such settlements in India grew into an empire, of which Goa became the seat of government. In South America, Brazil was colonized. But the object of Portugal was to enrich herself and extend the dominions of the Papacy. Her heroic and chivalrous enterprise soon sunk into effeminacy under luxury and the enthraldom of an all-grasping priesthood. Subjugated by Spain in Europe, and harassed by the Dutch, who wrested some of her Brazilian provinces, Portugal began to decline as a colonial power. Her system was doubly oppressive-politically and spiritually; and at the present time all her most important settlements have, by the assertion of their independence, declared that the permanent connection of the colonies with the mother country is not desirable.

The discovery of San Salvador deluged Spain with gold, and America and her islands with blood. In three years Cortez conquered Mexico, and before the year 1535 Pizarro overran Peru, Chili, and Quito. In the course of another twelve months New Grenada and Tierra Firma became parts of the splendid colonial empire of Spain. Having pillaged the natives of all their miserable trinkets, the Spaniards commenced the search for bidden treasures. Commercial towns dotted the coasts, and forts frowned upon the mines in the interior. Spain colonized as she conquered-in defiance of every feeling of humanity. Colonial trade was restricted to Se. ville, Porto Bello, and Vera Cruz, to enrich the favoured few in the mother state, and to impoverish the many in the settlements. For a time her suicidal policy nurtured Lima, Mexico, and Quito into populous cities; but her short-sighted policy ultimately dismembered her colonial empire. She destroyed more nations than she planted. Her daughters ultimately asserted their independence, and once more history declares that the permanent connection of the colonies with the mother

country is not desirable. - A handful of Protestants snatched their land-marshes and sand hills—from the ocean, and their place in the European family of nations from under the sceptre of Spain. For a time, the Dutch were contented with the trade of carriers from Lisbon to other European ports; but refusing the continuance of this lucrative traffic, Holland became a dangerous and successful rival. Her fleets soon absorbed the ocean trade with India. The Dutch East India Company rose out of Spanish and Portuguese desire to make the connection of the colonies with the mother state permanent. The merchants of Antwerp and Amsterdam monopolized the trade

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