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the longest members of the period, and the fullest and most sonorous words should be reserved for the con. clufion. As an instance of this, the following sentence of Addison may be given. “It fills the mind with the “ largest variety of ideas ; converses with its objects at “ the greatest distance ; and continues the longest in " action without being tired or fatiated with its prop*** er enjoyments.” Here every reader must be sensible of beauty in the just distribution of the pauses, and in the manner of rounding the period, and of bringing - it to a full and harmonious close.

It may be remarked, that little words in the conclufion of a sentence are as injurious to melody, as they are inconsistent with strength of expression. A musical <close in our language feems in general to require either the last fyllable, or the last but one, to be a long fyllable. Words, which consist chiefly of short fyllables, as contrary, particular, retrospect, feldom terminate a sentence harmoniously, unless a previous run of long fylla. bles have rendered them pleasing to the ear.

Sentences however, which are fo constructed, as to make the found always swell toward the end, and rest either on the last or penult syllable, give a discourse the tone of declamation. If melody be not varied, the car is foon eloyed with ite Sentences constructed in the same manner, with the pauses at equal intervals, should never fucceed each other. Short sentences must be

blended with long and swelling ones, to render discourfe {prightly as well, as magnificent.

We now proceed to treat of a higher species of har. mony ; the found adapted to the sense. Of this we may remark two degrees. First the current of found suited to the tenor of a discourse. Next a peculiar resemblance effected between some object and the sounds, that are employed in describing it.

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Sounds have in many respects an intimate corres. pondence with our ideas ; partly natural, partly produced by artificial associations. Hence any one modulation of sound, continued, stamps on style a certain character and expression. Sentences, constructed with Ciceronian fulness, excite an idea of what is important, magnificent, and sedate. But they suit no violent paffion, no eager reasoning, no familiar address. These require measures brisker, easier, and often more abrupt. It were as absurd to write a panegyric and an invective in a style of the fạme cadence, as to set the words of tender love song to the tune of a warlike march.

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Beside the general correspondence of the current of sound with the current of thought a more particular ex. preffion of certain objects by resembling founds may be attempted. In poetry this resemblance is chiefly to be fought. It obtains sometimes indeed in prose compo:Lition ; but there in an inferior degree,

The sounds of words may be employed for represent, ing chiefly three classes of objects ; first other sounds ; fecondly motions ; and thirdly the emotions and palfions of the mind. /

In most languages the names of many particular sounds are so formed, as to bear some resemblance of the sound, which they fignify'; as with us the whistling of winds, the buzz and hum of infects, the hiss of serpents; and the crash of falling zimber ; and many other in. stances, where the name is plainly adapted to the found, it represents. A remarkable example of this beauty may be taken from two passages in Milton's Paradise Lost ; in one of which he describes the found, made by the opening of the gates of hell ; in the other, that made by the opening of the gates of heaven. The contrast between the two exhibits to great advantage the art of the poet. The first is the opening of hell's gates ;

On a sudden open fly
With impetuous recoil and jarring found
The infernal doors ; and on their hinges grate

Harsh thunder:-
Observe the smoothness of the other ;

Heaven opened wide
Her ever during gates, harmonious sound !

On golden hinges turning.

In the second place the found of words is fre. quently employed to imitate motion ; as it is swift or flow, violent or gentle, uniform or interrupted, rafy or accompanied with effort. Between found and motion there is no natural affinity ; yet in the imagi.. nation there is a strong one ; as is evident from the connection between music and dancing.. The poet can therefore give us a lively idea of the kind of motion, he would describe, by the help of sounds, which in our imagination correspond with that motion.. Long fyl.. lables naturally excite an idea of flow.motion ; as in this line of Virgil,

Olli inter sese magna vi brachia tollunt.

A succession of short fyllables gives the impression of quick motion ; as,

Sed fugit interea, fugit. irreparabile tempus.. The works of Homer and Virgil abound with in... ftances of this beauty ; which are so often quoted, and: so well known, that it is unnecessary to produce them..

The third set of objects, which the found of words is. capable of representing, consists of emotions and pafa. fions of the mind.. Between sense and sound there appears to be no natural resemblance. But, if the ar. rangement of syllables by their found alone recall one set of ideas more readily, than another ; and dispose. the mind for entering into that affection, which the poet. intends to raise ; such arrangement may with propriety be said to resemble the sense. Thus, when pleasure, joy,.. and agreeable objects are described by one, who feels his subject ; the language naturally runs in smooth, lia quid, and flowing numbers.

Namque ipsa decoram
Cæfariem nato genetrix, lumenqne juventæ
Purpureum, et lætos oculis afflarat honores.

Brisk and lively sensations exact quicker and more animated numbers..

Juvenum manus emicat ardens
Littus in Hefperium.

Melancholy and gloomy subjects are naturally con. nected with flow measures and long words.

In those deep solitudes and awful cells,
Where heavenly pensive contemplation dwells.

Abundant instances of this kind are suggested by a moderate'acquaintance with good poets, either antient or modern.

ORIGIN AND NATURE OF FIGURATIVE

LANGUAGE.

PIGURES may be described to be that language, which is prompted either by the imagination or passions. They are commonly divided by rhetoricians into two great classes, figures of words, and figures of thought.

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