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will bear; for he, who attempts to carry them farther in paflion, than they will follow him, frustrates his purpose. By endeavoring to warm them too much he takes the furest method of freezing them completely.
Concerning the peroration or conclusion of a difcourse a few words will be sufficient. Sometimes the whole pathetic part comes in most properly at the conclusion. Sometimes, when the discourse has been al. together argumentative, it is proper to conclude with summing up the arguments, placing them in one view, and leaving the impression of them full and strong on the minds of the hearers. For the great rule of a con. clufion, and what nature obviously suggests, is, place that last, on which you choose to rest the strength of cause.
3,044 In every kind of public speaking it is important to hit the precise time of concluding; to bring the discourse just to a point ; neither ending abruptly and unexpectedly, nor disappointing the expectation of the hearers, when they look for the end of the discourse. The speaker should always close with dignity and spirit, that the minds of the hearers may be left warm, and that they may depart with a favorable impression of the subject and of himself.
PRONUNCIATION OR DELIVERY.
1 HE great objects, to which every public speaker should direct his attention in forming his delivery, are, First, to speak fo, as to be fully and easily understood by his hearers ; and next, to express himself with such grace and energy, as to please and to move them.
To be fully and easily understood, the chief requisites are a due degree of loudness of voice, distinctness, slowness, and propriety of pronunciation..
To be heard is undoubtedly the first requisite. The speaker must endeavor to fill with his voice the space; occupied by the assembly. Though this power of voice is in a great measure a natural talent, it may receive considerable allistance from art. Much depends on the proper pitch and management of the voice. Every man has three pitches in his voice ;, the high, the mid: dle, and the low. The high is used in calling aloud to some one at a distance ; the low approaches to a whisper ; the middle is that, which is employed in common conversation, and which should generally be used in public speaking. For it is a great error, to suppose that the highest pitch of the voice is requisite, to be well heard by a great assembly. This is confounding two things materially different, loudness or strength of found with the key or note, on which we speak. The voice may be rendered louder without altering the key ; and
the speaker will always be able to give most body, most persevering force of sound, to that pitch of voice, to which in conversation he is accustomed. Whereas, if he begin on the highest key, he will fatigue himself, and speak with pain ; and, wherever a man speaks with pain to himself, he is always heard with pain by his audience. Give the voice therefore full strength and swell of found; but always pitch it on your ordinary speaking key; a greater quantity of voice should never be uttered, than can be afforded without pain, and without any extraor. dinary effort. To be well heard, it is useful for a speaker to fix his eye on some of the most distant perfons in the assembly, and to consider himself, as speaking to them. We naturally and mechanically utter our words with such strength, as to be heard by one, to whom we address ourselves, provided he be within the reach of our voice. This is the case in public speaking as well, as in common conversation. But it must be remembered, that speaking too loudly is peculiarly offensive. The ear is wounded, when the voice comes. upon it in rumbling, indistinct masses ; beside it ap. pears, as if assent were demanded by mere vehemence and force of soundo
To being well heard and clearly understood distinc. ness of articulation is more conducive perhaps, than mere loudness of sound. The quantity of sound, requi. fite to fill even a large space, is less, than is commonly fupposed ; with distinct articulation a man of a
weak voice will make it extend farther, than the strongelt voice can reach without it. This therefore demands peculiar attention. The speaker must give every sound its due proportion, and make every syllable, and even every letter, be heard distinctly. To succeed in this, rapidity of pronunciation must be avoided. A lifeless, drawling method however is not to be indulged. To pronounce with a proper degree of flowness and with full and clear articulation cannot be too industriously studied, nor too earnestly recommended. Such pronun-ciation gives weight and dignity to a discourse. It affifts the voice by the pauses and rests, which it allows it. more easily to make ; and it enables the speaker to fwell all his founds with more energy and more music. It aflists him also in preserving a due command of. himself; whereas a rapid and hurried manner excites that flutter of spirits, which is the greatest enemy to all right execution in oratory.
To propriety of pronunciation nothing is more conducive, than giving to every word, which we utter, that found, which the most polite usage appropriates to it, in opposition to broad, vulgar, or provincial pronun. ciation. On this subject however written instructions avail nothing. But there is one observation, which it may be useful to make. In our language every word of more fyllables, than one, has one accented syllable.. The genius of the language requires the voice to mark that fyllable by a stronger percuffion, and to pass more
flightly over the rest. The same accent should be giv: en to every word in public speaking and in common disa. course. Many persons err in this respect. When they speak in public and with folemnity, they pronounce differently from what they do at other times. They dwell upon fyllables, and protract them; they multiply accents on the same word from a false idea, that it gives gravity and force to their difcourse, and increases the pomp of public declamation. But this is one of the greatest faults, which can be committed in pronuncia. tion ; it constitutes, what is termed a theatrical or mouthing manner ; and gives an artificial, affected ait to speechi, which detracts greatly from its agrecable-ness and its impression..
We shall now treat of those higher parts of delivery, by studying which a speaker endeavors not merely to render himself intelligible, but to give grace and forceto what he utters. These may be comprehended under four heads, emphasis, pauses, tones, and gestures. .
By emphasis is meant a fuller and stronger found of voice, by which we distinguish the accented syllable of some word, on which we intend to lay particular stress, and to show how it affects the rest of the sena tence. To acquire the proper management of empha-.. fis, the only rule is, study to acquire a just conception of the force and spirit of those sentiments, which you are to deliver. In all prepared discourses it would be ex