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must look back to the third sentence preceding, which begins with a man of a polite imagination. This phrase, polite imagination, is the only antecedent, to which it can refer ; and even this is not a proper antecedent, since it stands in the genitive case, as the qualification only of
There are, indeed, but very few roho know how to be idle and innocent, or have a relifs of any pleasures that are not criminal ; every diversion they take, is at the expence of some one virtue or another, and their very first step out of bufia112/s is into vice or folly.
Tlris sentence is truly elegant, musical, and correct.
A man fhould endiavour, therefore, to make the sphere of his innocent pleasures as wide as posible, that he may retire into them with safety, and find in them, such a fatisfa£iion as. a wife man would not blush to take.
This also is a good fentence, and exposed to no oba jection.
Of this nature are those of the imagination, which do not T:quire such a bent of thought as is necesary to our more fe rious employments ; nor, at the fame time, suffer the mind to Jink into that indolence and remifitifs, which are apt to accomfary vur more firjual delights ; but, like a gentle exercise to the faculties, awaken them from loth and idleness, without putting them upon any clour or difficulty.
The beginning of this fentence is incorrect. Of this nature, says he, are those of the imagination. It might be asked, of what nature ? For the preceding sentence had not described the nature of any class of pleasures. He had said that it was every mans duty to make the sphere of his innocent pleasures as extensive, as possible, that within this sphere he might find a safe retreat and laudable fatisfaction. The transition therefore is loosely made. It would have been better, if he had said, “This “ advantage we gain,” or “This fatisfaction we enjoy," by means of the pleasures of the imagination. The rest of the sentence is correct.
We might here add, that the pleasures of the fancy are more conducive to health than those of the understanding, which are worked out by dint of thinking, and attended with too via olent a labour of the brain.
Worked out by dint of thinking is a phrase, which bore ders too nearly on the style of common conversation, to be admitted into polished composition.
Delightful scenes, whether in nature, painting, or poetry, have a kindly influence on the body, as well as the mind, and not only serve to clear and brighten the imagination, but are able to disperse grief and melancholy, and to set the animal Spirits in pleasing and agreeable motions. For this reason Sir Francis Bacon, in his Ejay upon Health, has not thought it improper to prescribe to his reader a poem or a prospect,
where he particularly diffuades him from knotty and fubiile disquisitions, and advises him to pursue studies that fill the mind with splendid and illustrious obje&s, as histories, fables, and contemplations of nature.
In the latter of these two periods a member is out of its place. Where he particularly difuades him from knotty and subtile disquisitions ought to precede has not thought it improper to prescribe, &c.
I have in this paper, by way of introduktion, settled the motion of those pleafures of the imagination, which are the fubje&t of my prefent undertaking, and endeavoured, by feveral confiderations to recommend to my readers the pursuit of those pleasures ; I ball in my next paper examine the several sources from whence these pleasures are derived.
These two concluding sentences furnish examples of proper collocation of circumstances. We formerly showed that it is difficult fo to dispose them; as not to embarrass the principal subject. Had the following incidental circumstances, by way of introduction by several confiderations--in this paper in the next paper, been placed in any other situation; the sentence would have been neither fo neat, nor fo clear, as it is on the present construction.
ORIGIN OF ELOQUENCE.
LLOQUENCE is the art of persuasion. Its most essential requisites are solid argument, clear method, and an appearance of sincerity in the speaker, with such graces of style and utterance, as .command attention. | Good sense must be its foundation. Without this no man can be truly eloquent ; since fools can persuade none, but fools. Before we can persuade a man of fense, we must convince him. Convincing and persuading, though sometimes confounded, are of very different import. Conviction affects the understanding only ; persuafion the will and the practice. It is the business of a philosopher to convince us of truth ; it is that of an orator to persuale us to act comformably to it by engaging nur affections in its favor. Conviction is however one avenue to the heart ; and it is that, which an orator must first attempt to gain ; for no persuasion can be stable, which is not founded on conviction. But the
crator must not be satisfied with convincing ; he must ... address himself to the passions ; he must paint to the · fancy, and touch the heart. Hence beside folid argument and clear method all the conciliating and intereft.
ing arts of composition and pronunciation enter into the • idea of eloquence.
Eloquence may be considered, as consisting of three kinds or degrees. The first and lowest is that, which aims only to please the hearers. / Such in general is the eloquence of panegyrics, inaugural orations, addresses to great men, and other harangues of this kind. This ornamental fort of composition may innocently amuse and entertain the mind; and may be mixed at the fame time with very useful sentiments. But it must be acknowledged, that, where the speaker aims only to shine and to please, there is great danger of art being strained into ostentation, and of the composition becoming tiresome and insipid. . The second degree of eloquence is, when the speaker aims, not merely to please, but also to inform, to in. struct, to convince ;' when his art is employed in removing prejudices against himself and his cause ; in selecting the most proper arguments, stating them with the greatelt force, arranging them in the best order, expressing and delivering them with propriety and beauty; thereby disposing us to pass that judgment, or favor that side of the cause, to which he seeks to bring us. Within this degree chiefly is employed the eloquence of the bar.
The third and highest degree of eloquence is that, by which we are not only convinced, but interested, agitated, and carried along with the speaker ; our paflions rise with his ; we share all his emotions ; we love, we