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ACCOUNT OF THE LIFE OF THE REV. and worship of God; that ministers HENRY SCOUGAL.
may hereby be directed in their ad(Continued from p. 376.)
ministrations, to keep like soundness
in doctrine and prayer, and may, if S to the mode of conducting need be, have some help and furni
public worship, Professor Scou. ture; and yet so as they become not gal was an advocate for liturgical hereby slothful and negligent in forms. The question concerning the stirring up the gifts of Christ in them, lawfulness and expediency of set but that each one may be careful to forms for public worship, was warm- furnish his heart and tongue with lg contested in Scotland, during the further *, or other materials, of cerenteenth century. An establish- prayer.” “ The Directory," says ed Liturgy was considered, by the Dr. Hill, in his Theological Institutes, zealous Presbyterians, as the high “ has been recommended by the Geroad to popish superstition and ido- neral Assembly, since the Revolution, lary; and the Service Book, as it and, as to the substance of it, is gewas called, was treated by them with nerally observed in the Church of almost as little ceremony as the Mass Scotland; but the lapse of time and Book. On the abolition of Episco- the change of circumstances have pacy, and the suppression of the Li- introduced various alterations; and turgy, during the commotions of the it is the friendly intercourse which ciril war, the General Assembly of the ministers of that church have the Church of Scotland adopted the with one another, and the superinDirectory for public Worship, which tending controul of the church courts; had been composed by the West. it is the spirit of the constitution minster Assembly of Divines *, and coming in aid of the good sense of is usually affixed to the Confession of the individual members, rather than Faith. The design wbich the com- any system of positive regulations, pilers of the Directory had in view, that preserves in our republic that 15 thos expressed in the preface to degree of uniformity in worship that work: “ Our meaning is, that which is essential to an established the general heads, the sense and scope of the prayers and other parts The following are the contents of the of public worship, being known to Directory: 1. of the assembly of the congreall
, there may be a consent of all galion ; 2. Of public reading of the Holy tbe churches in those things that Scriptures; 3. Of public prayer before time contain the substance of the service sermon ; 4. Of preaching the word ; 5. of
prayer after sermon; 6. Of the sacrament • The Confession of Faith, and thie Larger of baptism; 7. Of the sacrament of the and Shorter Catechisms, drawn up by the Lord's supper ; 8. The sanctification of the Westminster Assembly, were also at the same Lord's day; 9. The solemnizntion of marriage; time received as the standards of doctrine in 10. The visitation of the sick ; 11. The bu. the Church of Scotland; and this is the only rial of the dead ; 12. Public solemn fasting; instance of a national protestant church hav- 13. The observation of days of public thanksing changed its - systematical confession of giving; 14. Singing of Psalms; An Appendix faith since the Reformation.
touching days and places of public worship. CHRIST. OBSERy, No. 127.
church.” Professor Scougal avail The Professor might have appealed himself of the influence and au. ed in support of his predilection for thority which he derived from his liturgical forms to the practice of a character and station, 10 recom- church, which is unquestionably the mend the use of a Liturgy, as being oldest of the whole protestant commore consonant to the general prac- munity, I mean the Unitas Fratrum, tice of the primitive times, and more or the church of the United Brethren, conducive to the edification of Chris. known in England by the name of tian worshippers when met together Moravians, whose Liturgy in the in the great congregation. When be main points is in unison with our was advanced to the chair of theo- own. He might also have appealed logy, he composed a formulary for to the authority of Luther and Methe use of the cathedral church of Jancthon, and of their eminent coAberdeen, which entitles him to a adjutor John Bagenhagius; to which high rank among devotional writers. he might have added the name of an It includes every essential branch English nonconformist then living, of prayer: it breathes a fervent spirit Richard Baxter, whose praise will of evangelical piety, expressed in a be in all churches of the saints, to the style of majestic simplicity level to end of time *. A Liturgy had been every capacity; and upon the whole, used in Scotland, at a very early pemay be pronounced not unworthy riod of the Reformation, but was soon of those' venerable confessors and laid aside, as well as the episcopal martyrs of the Protestant cause, to form of church government; and the whom we are indebted for our admi- presbyterian discipline and mode of rable Liturgy,
worship were fully established by In maintaining the expediency of law before the close of the sixteenth liturgical forms, Scougal had the good century. King James had no corfortune to coincide with the great ora- dial love to this scheme of ecclesiascle of the Presbyterians in doctrine and church government; no less a minister only, and not to consider it, at least man than John Calvin himself, whose not so much as they ought, as a duty in which opinion upon that head appears from they themselves are equally concerned. It the following passage in a letter writ- appears to me, that our mode of worship is ten by him to the Protector of Eng. 100 refined for the young and ignorant, and land, in the reign of Edward the I am persuaded, that something ought to be Sixth.
" As a form of prayer and done to render our public services less tireecclesiastical rites, I highly approve Porms of devotion would give a solemnity,
some, and more interesting to such persons. that it should be certain; from which and dignity to our public worship, and : it may not be lawful for any mipis- stability to our religious societies; in which, ter to depart, as well in considera- I think, they are now deficient. Our public tion of the weakness and ignorance worship is tvo uncertain and Auctuating : it of some, as that it may more plain- depends on the frame of the person's mind ly appear, how our churches agree who officiates, which is variable, and it amongst themselves, and lastly, that changes wlien ministers are changed ; and it a stop may be put to the giddiness appears to me, that there is something more of those who affect novelties *."
solemn and venerable in public Liturgies,
where responses are used, and where all ibe * A Liturgy was offered to the public some people are evidently employed in the woryears ago, by a respectable Dissenting mic ship of their Maker." pistert, from whose prefatory address, the * The writings of Bennet, in defence of following passages are selected: “In pur precamposed forms of public devotion, may present mode of conducting religious worship, be recommended to students in divinity; as too much depends upon the minister: on this also a treatise entitled Apologia, by the late account it is to be reared, that some are too Rev. John Newton, in a series of letters to *pt to look upon prayer as the business of the an independent minister, wherein the church
of Englandmen may be furnished both with + The Rev. Mr. Carpenter,
& sword and a shield,
tical polity, of which he gave the ship was not difficult* to be restormost unequivocal proofs, soon after ed." The bishops, however, did not his accession to the throne of Eng- make the attempt to establish unie Jand, when the hierarchy was re- formity in worship; and it was imstored : although the accustomed possible that an established church form of presbyterian worship was could exist in peace or vigour under retained, he would gladly have in- so vague and undefined a scheme of troduced the English Liturgy, but discipline and worship as prevailed he knew the temper of the nation in Scotland, between the period of too well to venture precipitately the Restoration and the Revolution ; upon such a step. By way of feel- an unhappy period, the annals of ing the pulse of his people, he re which were marked by an unre. commended, on the restoration of lenting spirit of persecution on the prelacy, that several rites and cere one hand, and on the other, by a monies should be transplanted from sour, narrow, unaccommodating temEngland, and engrafted upon a stock per, which spurned the olive-branch which he soon found not to be very when held out by that truly aposcongenial to their nourishment and tolical man, Archbishop Leighton. growth. So general and so violent In such a state of things, it must be was the opposition to this supposed allowed that Professor Scougal had approximation towards the idolatry a difficult and delicate part to perof the Romish ritual, that no further form; and with what 'success be innovations were attempted during performed it, the reader may be left the reign of James. His successor, to judge from the following passage Charles the First, imprudently made in Dr. Gairden's funeral sermon.' the attempt to overthrow the national “ Yea, the several sects among us worship, and to establish a Liturgy, lament his loss, and seem to confesswhich excited tumults and insurrec- that a few like him would soon heal tions, that terminated in the destruc- our schisms.” tion of the episcopal order, the abo It was unfortunate for the epislition of the ceremonies which had copal church of Scotland that there been introduced by James, and the were but few men at that time like re-establishment of the presbyterian Scougal, among her dignified ecdiscipline and worship with new vi- clesiastics. The primate, Archbigour and fervour. Thus inatters shop Sharp, had rendered himself continued until the restoration of odious to the Presbyterians by his Charles the Second, when episco. dissimulation and treachery at the pacy was restored with an inter- period of the Restoration. On the mixture of presbyterian discipline. subject of church government, he " But the prelates,” to borrow a displayed all the highi notions of passage from a late historian *, " in- Laud, without any of his private tent on the acquisition of power, had virtues ; and the men whom he reintroduced no material innovation in commended to fill up the vacant the worship or rites of the church. sees had generally few + pretenIts worship was still extemporary, sions to the character of Christian or exchanged in some congregations
Perhaps not, had the bishops been, gefor a portion of the Liturgy. The nerally speaking, such men as Leighton and sacramental rites were administered Scougal, and the great body of the inferior without kneeling, or the sign of the episcopal clergy possessed of the spirit and cross; and as the surplice, the altar, tein per of Burnet, Nairn, and Charteris. and the offensive ceremonies of the 7 * 1 observed," says Bishop Burnet, “the preceding reign were not generally deportment of our bishops was in all points revived, an uniform mode of wor- so different from what became their functiou
that I had a more than ordinary zeal kiudled • Malcolm Luing's History of Scotland, withio me upon it. They were not only fue vol. ii. p. 49.
rious against all that stood out against theum
bishops --although there were at splendour,-a notion the most vithat time, both of the episcopal or- sionary that could be conceived at der and among the inferior clergy, that juncture, and which shews how men who would have done honour completely the mind of Sharp was to the purest ages of the church. intoxicated by pride and ambition. The father of Professor Scougal, Another design which Leighton who was bishop of Aberdeen, 'ap- had much at heart, was, the introproached nearer to the fervent piety duction of a more regular and uniof Leighton than any of his contem- form mode of public worship. He poraries, and governed bis diocese was aware that any attempt to es in a manner which shewed that he tablish the English Liturgy must united, in an uncommon degree, the prove abortive, although no man wisdom of the serpent with the in- more cordially approved that Lis nocence of the dove. Sharp was turgy in every part than he did. the last man that ought to have been He was very nuch disgusted with pitched upon for the primacy. This the manner in which the generality unhappy man, as Bishop Burnet of the presbyterian elergy perform styles him (and no one knew him ed the devotional services of the better) formed a perfect contrast church; and he proposed a middle to Archbishop Leighton, whose way between the platform of the pacific and healing counsels he con- Directory, and the service of the temptuously rejected. Leighton, with Church of England, as the best a view to unite the two great par. calculated to promote general har ties into which the nation was die mony. But the Primate would neither vided on the point of ecclesiastical listen to this proposal, nor bring for jurisdiction, proposed to the Pric ward a plan of his own; and every mate the adoption of Archbishop man was left to model the service of Usher's scheme of reduced episco- the church according to his own pacy; but Sbarp, although he him. fancy. Sharp and his creatures, self bad been bred a presbyterian being wholly bent on the aequisiminister, would listen to nothing tion of power, had no leisure, nor short of the re-establishment of inclination to follow the path marks episcopacy ir its aneient vigour and ed out for them by Leighton; and
thus, as Bishop Burnet observes, that but were very remiss in all the parts of their good man "quickly lost all heart and function. Some did not live within their hope, and said often to me upon it, dioceses; and those who did, seemed to take that in the whole progress of that no care of them : they shewed no zeal affair, there appeared such cross against vice; the most eminently wicked characters of an angry Providence, were their particular confidants: they took no pains to keep their clergy strictly to rules
that how fully soever he was satisand to their duty; on the contrary, there fied in his own mind as to episcopawas a levity and a carnal way of living cy itself, yet it seemed that God was about them that very much "scandalized against them, and that they were me.” Hist. of his own Times, vol. ii. folio not like to be the men that should edit. page 217. The same author thus speaks build up his church.” of the inferior episcopal clergy in the west of From the bints that are scattered Scotland : “ They were generally rery mean in the miscellaneous remains of and despicable in all respects; they were tře Leighton, respecting the mode of worst preachers I ever heard; they were ig- conducting the services of the sanenorant to a reproaclı, and tuany of them tuary, there is no room to doubt were openly vicious; they were a disgrace that his views on this subject were to the sacred function; those of them who arose above contempt or scandal, were men
congenial with those of Professor of such violent tenpers
, that they were as Scougal; and had the task of remuch hated as the others were despised.” gulating the external order of pubSuch was the state in wbich Leighton found lic worship been committed to them.
they would have accomplished
bis dioc ser
with credit to themselves, and with Scriptures, and then the Decalogue : profit to the church.
to which is subjoined a form of The presbyterian church had a thanksgiving, with an intercessory systematical Confession of Faith ; a prayer, and a petition for blessings Directory for the performance of all temporal and spiritual. Such was the duties of the pastoral care; and the order of the morning service. a regular plan of church government The prayer which begins the and discipline; but the ruling men evening service, is the same in subin the episcopal church appear to stance with the first prayer in the have consigned those important morning service, but varied in considerations to the chapter of ac- expression. It is drawn up in a cidents *-intent upon one object, spirit of true humility, and in a style namely, the acquisition of power. of majestic simplicity, well calcuFroin Archbishop Leighton's charges, Jated to kindle in the breast a flame may be seen how anxious he was of pure and rational devotion. This for the establishment of a regular prayer is followed by an order for plan of public worship; and Sharp's reading the Scriptures, then the Te time would have been well employ- Deum laudamus, closing with a ed in the formation of a ritual ac- prayer which includes intercession, cording to the plan chalked out by supplication, and petition *. that excellent prelale, in his Direc Rites and ceremonies, postures tions to the Clergy of the Diocese and vestments, days of feasting and of Dumblane; or if he had ordered abstinence, were fertile sources of the Liturgy composed by Professor controversy in the days of Scougal. Scougal, to be introduced into the The flame of controversy on those cathedral churches and the univer- points was first kindled, in the resities. That excellent formulary, formed Church of Scotland, by the .which reflects so much credit upon ill-judged zeal of King James the the talents and the piety of its au- First, who, after his accession to the thor, begins with a prayer which throne of England, proposed the exhibits a fine specimen of adora- adoption of the following rites and tion, confession of sin, and sup- observances : koeeling at the Saplication for mercy and grace: then crament; the administration of Bapfollows an order for reading the tism and the Eucharist in private ;
Episcopal Confirmation; and the • Archbishop Leighton laboured to direct celebration of the Festivals of the the zeal of the Primate to inatters of prinie Church of England. To these his importance, and was anxious (to use the words of Bishop Burnet) “ to try how they Laud, added ceremonies still more
son Charles, under the guidance of could raise men to a truer and brigher sense of piety, aud bring the worship of the church offensive to the Presbyterians, who out of their extempore methods into more
formed a great majority of the naorder, and so to prepare them for a more re tion. The cross in baptism, kneelgular way of worship, which he tlought was at the altar, bowing at the name of of much more importance than a form of Jesus, wearing a surplice, and the government." " But" (as the same writer observance of Christmas and Good subjoins)“ he was amazed when he observed, Friday, were considered by the thai Sharp had neither foraied any scheme, Presbyterians of that day as fond nor seemed so much as willing to talk of ang. things vainly invented, and nearly He reckoned, that in the next session of Par- akin to popish superstition and ido. liament, they would be legally possessed of their bishopries, and then every bishop was
latry. Scougal laboured, as much to do the best he could to get all once to
as in him lay, to heal the breach submit to his authority; and when that point that had been made by those unediwas carried, they might proceed to other fying debates. He lamented that things as should be found expedient." -Burnet's History of his own Times, vol. i. p. * This admirable formulary is now out of 140.