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in order that we may discern what is meant by the Fulness of Time,' what we have said in a former part of our paper may, perhaps, serve to indicate.

3dly. The long duration and gradual decease of Imperial ideas in Western Europe. There can be no greater fallacy than that which regards the Western Empire as having perished under Augustulus, and which looks upon Charlemagne as a mere parodist of its character and features. This is, however, too large a subject to be entered on at present, even did we feel competent to the task. It requires no reasoning, however, to show that if Savigny and his followers be right in their views of the matter, it is a point the misapprehension of which must necessarily render European History incomprehensible. We have already alluded to its bearing on the character of Mediæval Civilization.

4thly. The Reformation as a movement participated in by the Latin Church.

Our whole article, as we have said, has been one of hints. If our hints have been at all just, they must suggest many others, the following out of which would render historical lessons real and living to an extent whereto in ordinary education we have perhaps been sadly strangers, at least for a century and a half.

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Art. II. – 1. An Epistle to the Terrible Priests of the Concoca

tion House. By MARTIN MARPRELATE, Gentleman. Reprinted from the Black Letter Edition, with an Introduction

and Notes. London: Petheram. 1843. 8vo. Pp. 76. 2. An Epitome of the First Book of Dr. John Bridges' Defence of

the Government of the Church of England in Ecclesiastical Matters. By MARTIN MARPRELATE, Gentleman. Reprinted,

&c. London: Petheram. 1843. 8vo. Pp. 64. 3. Pap with a Hatchet ; being a Reply to Martin Marprelate.

Reprinted, &c. London: Petheram. 1844. 8vo. Pp. 52. 4. Hay any Worke for Cooper. Reprinted, &c.

London : Petheram. 1845. 8vo. Pp. 84. To what are we to attribute the mass of reprints' with which we are in the present day overwhelmed ? Let a man examine any of the more favourite channels employed in the advertisement of new publications, and we will venture to say, that he will find nine-tenths of such advertisements to be either pamphlets of mere local and passing interest, or new editions, as some would call them, reprints' more properly, of older works. Now is this owing to a want of industry, or talent, or self-reliance in modern writers, not to say, authors ? or rather to an apparently unappeasable desire in the reading part of the people of England to know the opinions and concusions of their forefathers, and so learn to guide their own practice, not so much despising as distrusting contemporary judgment? We certainly are always ready to welcome new editions, carefully done and with impartiality, of scarce books of high ecclesiastical or national importance, and of standard authors; but we are really sickened by the late profusion of mere ‘reprints,' the originals of which have been selected as if at random, and might weil have been allowed to remain, not in obscurity perhaps, but in their comparative infrequency of occurrence. We would not lose this opportunity of naming one book which we are anxious to see another and a good edition of, viz. Wilkins' • Concilia. Any man well learned and of laborious habits who would undertake it (and much of both he must have), would confer, we do not hesitate to say, a national benefit upon us ; independently of making a very dear and scarce book more accessible, many important documents have, during the last hundred years, been brought to light, and much valuable information gained, the addition of which would greatly increase the usefulness of the old Concilia,' and make it very far indeed from being a reprint.' Neither would we omit holding up as an example of what any thing that pretends to be an edition should not be, the late republication, with notes, of Collier's · Ecclesiastical History,' by Francis Barham, Esq. This was a scarce work also, and in deservedly great demand; but we cannot sufficiently express our regret, that it was entrusted to an editor who had neither discretion nor learning at all competent to the task, and who has done his utmost by silly remarks to injure the reputation of the great author of the History itself. *

And societies also are springing up, every year a new one, eager to supply the demand for reprints. The members of these, however, and this is not to be lamented, are never pleased, but always complaining; at one time of the selection made ; at another, of the delay in publishing; at another, of the incompetency of editors; and very seldom without good reason.

There are many evils generally accompanying all this, one or two of which we are bound to notice; such as, that careless readers are easily satisfied without being at any trouble to form a judgment themselves upon what they read, taking for granted that no book but a good book would be reprinted, and one which had successfully stood the test of public opinion; hence they adopt, as a matter of course almost certainly are not so cautious as about new works), doctrines and conclusions advocated in these republications; and, not the least, idle men, with little learning and less wit, find in it, or suppose they find in it, a "royal road' to distinction, an easy way by which they may gain the repute of being literary' themselves. These take an

* We presume that this Mr. Francis Barham has had the benefit of such an education as he was capable of, and we have said that his remarks upon Collier are silly, rather than use a stronger term about them, which we are really unwilling to do. Silly people are generally vain : if Mr. Barham's vanity had allowed him to be content in that line of business for which his talents probably are sufficient, viz. for a simple correcting of the press, we should have had a valuable book supplied to us, for we should have had Collier himself. We know no greater misery than 10 be forced to read a good author, and to be interrupted at every three or four pages by some impertinent, ignorant note. We are glad, however, since an annotated edition was to be, that Mr. B.'s arrangement with his publisher did not oblige bim to more than at the rate of about one note per sheet. This is carried out with most stubborn honesty, according to a sort of settled routine. First a witty (!) note ; then an indignant ; then argumentative ; then pathetic ; then one very nearly approaching the blasphemous ; as for example, “If Christians bad contended a little more for Christ's spirit, and a little less for his body, it might have been better.' Then begins the witty again ; and the indignant; and so on, through the stipulated changes. It is indeed fortunate that we still have the old folios to fall back upon; we speak in all earnestness upon this matter. Bishop Collier’s ‘Ecclesiastical History' is not a book which should have been subjected to such treatment; and we are anxious to add whatever weight may be attached to our opinion, though expressed in so brief a way, to the contempt with which this edition by Mr. Barham ought to be received, and which it most amply deserves.

author, go through the usual form of what is called "editorship,'a service to which most people who can read are competent, and then make themselves happy, and suppose themselves to be conspicuous, this man as “the editor of --;' that man, the editor of -

We are led to make these observations as a sort of brief exposure of a great abuse, by the appearance of the four tracts which stand at the head of this article. We hope and believe that nothing except the rabies of reprinting could have induced one to have undertaken the expense and trouble (for some little trouble even these unquestionably demand,) of republishing any volumes of the Martin Marprelate controversy. We understand that the publisher of them, Mr. Petheram, of Chancery-lane, is also the editor; and we are in justice ready to say, that so far as regards a general correctness of the text, and neatness of typography, we have nothing to complain of. There are a few temperately written notes added, chiefly explaining the historical allusions. At the end of the reprinted • Epistle’ is a prospectus of twenty-six • Tracts relating to the controversy between the • Puritans and the Church of England, during the reign of • Elizabeth, on Discipline,' &c., which are 'suggested for publi'cation. All these, with the exception of three or four short pieces in answer to Martin Marprelate, are upon the Puritan side only; and, to show the extent of the 8c. include the Brieff Discours off the Troubles begonne at Franckford,' and a selection from the Parte of a Register.'

Now even supposing, which seems to us absurd, that the proposals of this Prospectus should be carried out, yet we believe that as on the one hand there is little or no demand for books of the sort, so upon the other the spreading of them abroad at any time must be accompanied with very serious evils, must tend to excite doubts about things long ago argued and decided upon, and produce no little pain in minds accustomed to regard with reverence subjects which the Elizabethan Puritans spoke of in mockery and scorn, and with blasphemous jesting. A friend has told us (upon the authority we believe of the publisher) that almost all the copies which are sold go to America: we cannot say that we are surprised at this ; but it greatly increases our regret. If the people of America ask bread of us, should we give them stones? There, where thousands are eagerly looking out for information it may be, but more probably simply for amusement; where there are not even the checks which still exist among ourselves; where the Catholic Church barely claims to be the city upon a hill, but is oppressed from within and from without; where there is no attempt at discipline, and scarcely certainty even upon the most important doctrines; there, let us ask, shall we suffer these pamphlets to be sent without uttering, though it be perhaps in vain, our indignant protest? When, however, (to return from this digression,) we said that there is little demand for such books, we did not forget that whenever they do occur, few produce higher prices; and several of the shorter ones, of five or six pages, would sell for as many guineas: but the reason of this is, first, their extraordinary rarity, which is the result of the severe penalties which the mere possessors of them at the time lay under, and the strictness with which they were suppressed; secondly, and here we would notice an objection which might be made to our previous remarks, they are, without doubt, of great historical importance, as it is in a measure from them, and from the replies to them, that we learn the religious history of the Elizabethan age. For the first of these reasons bibliomaniacs, who care nothing for intrinsic value, will always be eager purchasers ; and for the second, many will anxiously seek after them who wish to inquire into the then state of public opinion, or who may be engaged upon a work which relates to that period. Now, to neither of these will such a series of reprints' as that proposed by Mr. Petheram be of value; it is evident at a glance, that the collector of curious books, as such, would care nothing about them; and an accurate writer ought not to content himself with a reprint of a book of this class, if the original is to be referred to. All these considerations seem to us of infinitely greater weight when we observe further, that Mr. Petheram's Prospectus does not aim at a complete reprint' of any one controversy, even upon one side only. Mr. Petheram, in his brief introduction to Martin Marprelate's Epistle, (the first of the series,) expressly says, “I must disclaim any personal or

politico-religious feelings in bringing once more before the world • these curious productions of by-gone times. Hence his Prospectus has the appearance of, and in fact is, a list of books selected for republication without a particular object, or hope of completeness, or on any other account than because they are • curious.' For among them is, “The Admonition to the Parliament,' a very famous tract without doubt; but the beginning only of a controversy which included Whitgift's * Answer to the Admonition, and Cartwright's “Reply to the Answer,' and Whitgift's Defence of the Answer, and Cartwright's Second Reply,' and · The rest of the Second Reply.' Where are all these? who would venture to republish them? The · Defence of the Answer' is a folio of more than eight hundred pages, very closely printed in a small type. We shall state, in a word or two, another objection. Although all the books in Mr. Petheram's list are at least uncommon, yet,

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