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MORAL ESSAYS,

E P I S T L E III.

Τ ο
Allen Lord Bathurst.

TO

A R G U Μ Ε Ν Τ.

Of the Use of RICHES. THAT it is known to few, most falling into one of the

extremes, Avarice or Profusion, x 1, &c. The Point discuss'd, whether the invention of Money has been more commodious, or pernicious to Mankind, x 21 to 77. That Ricbes, either to the Avaricious or the Prodigal, cannot afford Happiness, scarcely Necessaries, x 89 to 160. That Avarice is an absolute Frenzy, without an End or Purpose, x 113, &c. 152. Conje&tures about the Motives of Avaricious men, x 121 to 153. That the conduet of men, with respeet to Riches, can only be accounted for by the ORDER OF PROVIDENCE, which works the general Good out of Extremes, and brings all to its great End by perpetual Revolutions, $ 161 to 178. How a Miser cets upon Principles which appear to him reasonable, x 179. How a Prodigal does the same, Ý 199. The due Medium, and true use of Riches, x 219. The Man of Ross, x 250. The fate of the Profuse and the Covetous, in two examples; both miserable in Life and in Death, ý 300, &c. The Story of Sir Balaam,

339 to the end.

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Who sees

Ghartin fiulp.. pale Mammon pine amidsthis Store, Sees but a backward Steward for the Poor;

This Year a Reservoir, to keep and sparera The next, a Fountain,spouting thro his

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E P I S T L E

PIST

III.

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P. HO fhall decide, when Doctors disagree, And foundest Casuists doubt, like

you and me? You hold the word, from Jove to Momus giv’n, That Man was inade the standing jest of Heav'n ;

COMMENTARY. Epistle III.) This Epistle was written after a violent outcry against our Author, on a fuppofition that he had ridiculed a worthy nobleman merely for his wrong tafte.

He justified himself upon that article in a letter to the Earl of Burlington; at the end of which are these words : “ I have learnt that there are " fome who would rather be wicked than ridiculous; and there“fore it may be safer to attack vices than follies. I will there. “fore leave my betters in the quite poffeffion of their idols, their

groves, and their high places; and change my subject from “ their pride to their meanness, from their vanities to their mi“ series, and as the only certain way to avoid misconstructions, “ to lessen offence, and not to multiply ill-natured applications, “I may probably, in my next, make use of real names instead « of fictitious ones. P.

Ver. 1.. Who shall decide, &c.] The address of the Introducțion (from I to 21) is remarkable : The poet represents himself and the noble Lord his friend, as in a conversation, philosophising on the final cause of Riches; and it proceeds by way of

NOTES Ver. 3. Momus giv'n,] Amongst the earliest abuses of reason, one of the first was to cavil at the ways of Providence. But as, in those times, every Vice as well as Virtue, had its Patron-God, Monius came to be at the head of the old Frie. thinkers. Him, the Mythologists very ingeniously made the Son of Slcep and Night, and so, consequently, half-brother to Dulnefs. But having been much employed, in after ages, by

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And Gold but sent to keep the fools in play, $

5 For some to heap, and some to throw away.

But I, who think more highly of our kind, (And surely, Heav'n and I are of a mind) Opine, that Nature, as in duty bound,

, Deep hid the shining mischief under ground: 10

COMMENTARY.
dialogue, which most writers use to hide want of method; our
Author only to foften and enliven the dryness and severity of it.
You (says the poet)

- hold the word from Jove to Momus giv'n,
But I, who think more highly of our kind, &c.

Opine that Nature, &c. As much as to fay, “ You, my Lord, hold the subject we are “ upon as fit only for Satire; I, on the contrary, esteem it a “ case of Philosophy, and profound Ethics : But as we both “ agree in the main Principle, that Riches were not given for the reward of Virtue, but for very different purposes (See Essay on Man, Ep. iv.) let us compromise the matter, and consider “ the subject jointly, both under your idea and mine, i. e, Satirically and Philosophically.—And this, in fact, we shall find to be the true character of this poem, which is a Species peculiar to itself, and partaking equally of the nature of his Ethic Epistles and his Satires, as the best pieces of Lucian arose from a combination of the Dialogues of Plato, and the Scenes of Ariftophanes. This it will be necessary to carry with us, if we would see either the Wit or the Reasoning of this Epistle in their true light.

NOTES. the Greek Satirists, he came, at last, to pass for a Wit; and under this idea, he is to be considereu in the place before us.

VER. 9. Opine,] A term facred to controversy and high debate.

VER. 9.--that Nature, as in duty bound,] This, though lu, dicrously, is yet exactly, expressed ; to Thew, that, by Nature,

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