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chow, appointed the duke of Peih to protect and regulate that district and its people. This Book contains the charge to him as it was recorded on tablets.”
Keun-ch'in, who had succeeded to the duke of Chow in charge of Ching-chow, has followed him to the grave. By the labours of those two great ministers, a considerable change had been effected in the character of the people of Yin who had been transferred to that district. King K'ang appoints the duke of Peih to enter into and complete their work, adopting such measures as the altered character of the people, and altered circumstances of the time, called for. The charge occupies all the Book after an introductory paragraph, and may be divided into three chapters, each introduced by the words—“The king said.’
of those times counted the day when the sun and moon were veritably in conjunction to be the first day of the moon. The time of a lunation was divided into the time of brightness and the time of obscurity; the passage from the obscure to the bright time was described as “the death of the obscure,” and the passage from the bright to the obscure time as “the birth of the obscure;” —see “The Testamentary Charge.” The standard History gives 26 as the years of K'ang's reign; if that be correct, his death took place B.C. 1,042, since we have found that B.C. 1,056 was his 12th year; and B.C. 1,067 was the first year of his reign.
‘This year, B.C. 1,067, should be marked by the cycle characters JX, the 11th year of the cycle. Now, the “Bamboo Books” do mark his first year so; but the year which they denote is that B.C. 1,007, differing from the true year, which appears to have been demonstrated, exactly an entire cycle of 60 years.”
[As the cycle names of the days here afford ground for such important conclusions, in which Gaubil, I may state, was anticipated by Chang Yih-hing (the Buddhist priest mentioned on page 19), under the T'ang dynasty, it becomes desirable to establish the genuineness of the par., which may be hastily thrown aside with the remark that it only occurs in one of the controverted Books. Now this we are able to do, so far as the year, month, and days are concerned, from a passage in the # $ J# R&#–TS, being that referred to by Gaubil, and which is to this effect :-}
II. The king spoke thus:—Oh! Grand-tutor, it was when king Wān and king Woo had diffused their great virtue through the empire that they were able to receive the appointment which Yin
predecessors, and tranquillized and established their empire.
The duke of Chow acted as assistant to my royal
tiously did he deal with the refractory people of Yin, and removed them to the city of Lö, that they might be quietly near the royal
house, and thus be transformed by its lessons.
Six and thirty years
have elapsed, the generation has been changed, and manners
5 in it.
have altered. Through the four
quarters of the empire there is no
occasion for anxiety, and I, the one man, enjoy repose. The prevailing ways now tend to advancement and now to degeneracy, and measures of government must be varied according
to the manners of the time.
If you do not manifest your approval
of what is good, the people will not be led to stimulate themselves
But your virtue, O duke, is strenuous, and you are cautiously
attentive to small things. You have been helpful to and brightened four reigns, with deportment all-correct, leading on the inferior officers, so that there is not one who does not reverently take your
words as a law.
P. 4. character of the people; the time was come for discriminative measures. —it would be hard to say how Gan-kwo understood this clause. His comment on it is— # I'#'
ing-tä only makes more dark by his expansion of it. I have followed Ts'ae who observes that ~ff # = H #, ‘generous,” “affluent,’ ‘good;’ and *H # #, “foul,” “impure;’ and then illustrates this clause and the next by saying that, when the duke of Chow took charge of Ching-chow, the character of the people, with their evil habits all-unchanged, rendered a firm and cautious dealing with them necessary. When Keun-ch'in took charge, the people were considerably improved, and hence he was enjoined to be forbearing with them,
and promote harmonizing measures.
Govt. must be varied according to the
Your admirable merits were that of many in the
By |F, ‘four generations, we are to understand the reigns of Wan, Woo, Ching,
times of the former kings; I, the little child, have but to let my robes hang down, and fold my hands while I look up for the com
plete effect of your measures.”
III. The king spoke, “Oh ! Grand-tutor, I now reverently 7 charge you with the duties of the duke of Chow.—Go! Signalize the good, separating the bad from them; give tokens of your approbation to their neighbourhoods, distinguishing the good so as to make it ill for the evil, thus establishing the influence and reputation of their
Where the people will not obey your lessons and statutes,
, # A b HH # # F#, #f f: Xà)) jí, H: }% mark off the boundaries of their hamlets, making them fear to do evil and desire to do good. Define anew the borders and frontiers, and be careful to strengthen the guardposts through the territory, in order to secure the tranquillity of the whole empire. “In measures of government to be consistent and constant, and in proclamations a combination of completeness and brevity, are valuable. There should not be the love of what is extraordinary. Among the customs of Shang was the flattery of superiors. Sharp
tonguedness was the sign of worth. The remains of these manners are not yet obliterated. Do you, O duke, bear this in mind.
the same; but the meaning of , given for
in the dict., answers very well. Wang Ts'éaou says:-‘The city of Lö and the honoured capital of Chow were the two centres of the imperial domain. The honoured capital of Haou might be considered to have a square of 800 le, or 64 squares of 100 le each, attached to it; and Lö or Ching-chow to have a square of 600 le, or 36 squares of 100 le each. The extent from east to west was greater than from north to south, but altogether there was as much as a square of 1,000 le. Thus the borders of Lö were also the borders of Haou. See the 4# #.
- #, ‘strengthen the places of ward within the boundaries over which you are
remark attributed to him. Ying-tä has probably