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áñ.3% 7's 2 fit,' 'E y VII

3 manifesting their kindly government in the western regions. His recently ascended Majesty, rewarding and punishing exactly in accordance with what was right, fully established their achievements, and transmitted this happy state to his successors. Do you, O king,

now be reverent in your position. Maintain your armies in great order, and do not allow the rarely equalled appointment of our

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high ancestors to come to harm."

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ministers and officers.

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II. The king spoke thus:—“Ye princes of the various States, chiefs of the How, Teen, Nan, and Wei domains, I, Ch'aou, the one man, make an announcement in return for your advice. The former sovereigns, Wān and Woo, were greatly just, and enriched the people. They did not occupy themselves with people's crimes. Pushing to the utmost and maintaining an entire impartiality and sincerity,

they became gloriously illustrious throughout the empire.

Then

they had officers brave as bears and grisly bears, and ministers of no

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last Bk., p. 5. XS #.— were greatly just and rich. The critics are probably correct in interpreting the language of the govt. of Wān and Woo,—that it was just, carefully guarding the rights of the people, and that it was liberal, making taxation light, so that the people had plenty for all their wants. The paraphrase of the ‘Daily Explanation' is:—

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H #, they pushed the practice and carried it to the utmost. The question arises of what it was that they carried to the utmost? Was it the virtues indicated in the two previous parr., –M- so that and 4Ei are merely adjectives? or are we to take those two characters as nouns, denoting other virtues, having a substantial meaning of their own? Lin Che-ke, Ts'ae, and the Sung critics generally take the former view.

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double heart, who helped them to maintain and regulate the royal

House.

Thus did they receive the true favouring decree from God;

and thus did great Heaven approve of their ways, and give them

the four quarters of the empire.

Then they appointed and set up

principalities, and established bulwarks to the throne, with a view to

us their successors.

Now do ye, my uncles, I pray you, consider with

one another, and carry out the service which the dukes, your

predecessors, rendered to my predecessors.

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Though your persons be

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and h, #: Shing, to suppose the par. to begin at

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distant, let your hearts be in the royal house.

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anxieties and act in accordance with them, so that I, the little child,

not be put to shame.”

ima, , "' other and hastily withdrew. again his mourning dress.

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II. All the dukes, having heard this charge, bowed to one anThe king put off his cap, and assumed

}H # here confirms the interpretation of the

phrase which I have adopted in p. 2. The concluding statement, showing that the king and all the officers only assumed their mourning dress at the conclusion of this Announcement, has, since the time of Soo Shih, given rise to a controversy, which will probably be among Chinese | critics interminable. According to Shih, everything about the publication of the Testamentary Charge and the subsequent proceedings ought to have been transacted in mourning garb; and |

the neglect of this was a melancholy violation

of propriety. If the duke of Chow had been alive,

Shih thinks that he would not have allowed it, and he wonders why Confucius selected the documents recording it to form a portion of the Shoo. In point of fact, it cannot be proved positively that any violation of the proprieties established by the duke of Chow was committed, for the ceremonies to be observed on various occasions in the imperial court have not been transmitted. But to a student from the west the controversy appears trivial. We are glad | to have the ceremonies actually observed at so distant a date brought before our eyes so graphi| cally as is done in ‘The Testamentary Charge,'

The use of and “The Announcement of king K’ang.’

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n the sixth month of his twelfth year, the day of the new moon's appearance was Kāng-woo, and on Jin-shin, the third day after, the king walked in the morning from the honoured city of Chow to Fung, and there, with reference to the multitudes of Chingchow, gave charge to the duke of Peih to protect and regulate

the eastern frontier.

INTRoductorY NotE. If that reign must have been happy which, extending over a considerable number of years, has yet left few or no memorials in history, that of king K’ang may be so characterized. It extended over twentysix years, but no other event of it, after the Announcement of the last Book, is alluded to in the Shoo or by Sze-ma Tseen, but that appointment of the duke of Peih, to which we have now arrived. Ts’een, indeed, tells us that “during the time of kings Ching and K'ang, the empire was in a state of profound tranquillity, so that punishments were laid aside, and not

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