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事。百氏毛公處召o
0开虎公衛伯太 748
王御臣師侯伯保同

3 ing on the gem-adorned bench. He then called for the Grand

protector Shih, the baron of Juy, the baron of T'ung, the duke of Peih, the prince of Wei, the duke of Maou, Sze, the inaster of the warders, the master of the guards, the Heads of the officers, –all the superintendents of affairs. of saying directly that the emperor was unwell. , of full moon in the morning for China. The Woo Ch'ing observes that the emperor's being place of the sun shows that it was the 4th month ill is expressed by 7 tot and in and happened in the course of it. The argument of his decease by and te because Gaubil here agrees with that which I have his ministers could not bear to name such things presented on Bk. XII., p. 1; but the data are directly.' 2. F:-on the day Kös- less sure, as we cannot be certain that I F

in the text should be connected with the date in tsze.' But what day of the month this was cannot be determined. Hea Sëen observes that the impression that it should not be so connect

the 1st par., as the reasoning supposes. I receive *the historians of Han conclude that it was the

ed. same day intended by in the 1st

王乃冰箱水-王乃用 par., but it is to be presumed they are wrong. * F * . The meaning of In the “Completion of the War,” p. 1, we read- IFBt , lished ; and hence Ying-tä says it remains that

(=), “to wash the face,' is sufficiently estab* E, where the day intended by * be taken for • to wash the hands. Ma Yung JE AL is determined by its calendaric nanie made it='to wash the hair. The t has preceding. In the text here there is no such

#for #m.

-it is not WF was.' See the datOn the con

worth while to try and settle the question of clusion of the historians of Han, and the year

what particular cap or crown and robes the king of king Ching's death, Gaubil says :— Lew Hin,

wore on this occasion. His or crowns were who lived some years B.C., and Pan Koo (FEE six, and for each there was the appropriate oc

casion. See on the duties of the ) in the ), the historian, who flourished 70 or 80 Chow Le, Bk. XXI. The present was an extrayears after Christ, place the year of the death ordinary occasion, and no doubt his attendants of king Ching in 1,079, B.C., and make him to settled on their principle of court etiquette the have reigned 37 years; and they are followed in proper habit in which he should receive his these points by the standard History Get buinisters. The text determining nothing, howMartin D. They add that, on this year of the questions which they raise

, according to Ching's death, the day of the 47th of the Këang Shing, in loc. We must leave in the cycle, was new moon of the 4th month of the same way the question undetermined of who calendar of Chow, and that F was the the top was or were. The # and day of full moon ;-citing the text of this par. officers of his dept. are probably intended. See On the year B.C., 1,079, the day of the Chow Le, Bk. XXXI., in Ts'ae the 28th February of the Julian year, but new

would take the term more generally as — moon was several days after ; the day F# # #y, the supporters and assistants.' was the 14th of March, and the full moon was 被冕服-以冕服被(一加 not till several days after. Those two authors therefore make a false calculation, founded on #EY Lin Che-k'e ingeniously refers their false principles of the motion of the sun and moon, and of the return of the period of seventy- When he was sick, and the prince came to

to the practice of Confucius, Ana. X., xiii. 3,six years. The year 1,068 (or 1,069) B.C. was the year of the death of king Ching; the 16th made his court robes be placed over him, and

visit him, he had his head placed to the east, of March was the day IF, and also the day drew his girdle across them. The sage would

was

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言不彌日惟疾日 嗣獲留臻幾大鳴 蓝誓恐既病漸呼

4

-we are to

The king said, “Oh! my illness has greatly increased, and it will soon be over with me. The malady comes on daily with more violence and without interruption. I am afraid I may not find another opportunity to declare my wishes about my successor, and therefore I now lay my charge on you with special instructions. not receive a visit from his prince in his undress, l 'the heads or chiefs of the various departments even though he was sick; and in the same spirit of officers ;'-as frequently. king Ching would be properly arrayed on the

過玉几 occasion in the text.

We may take FEP 9, with Woo Ch'ing, as conceive of the king seated on a mat, and leaning Officers mentioned. It is said that the king sent

a general designation of all the ministers and forward in his weakness on the bench or stool

a common summons' for them all to come to before him. The benches used at various imperial ceremonies were of five kinds, of which his presence (PH7). On common occasions the 'gem-adorned' was the most honourable. the order to repair to the imperial presence See the Chow Le, Bk. XX., on the duties of was given to the six K‘ing,' who would lead the 司几筵 Difft. accounts are given on the officers belonging to their several deof their size. They were all, acc. to Ma Yung, partments? (see. Bk. XX, p. 13); but on the 3 feet long. Yuen Ch'in (BT) says they sent directly to all, of whatever rank. Such at were '5 feet long, and 2 feet high.' 3. The least is the explanation given of the phrase duke of Shaou, and the other five ministers mentioned, were no doubt the six King of Bk. 7 XX. On the death of the duke of Chow, the

Pp. 4–9. The king's charge. 4. The duke of Shaou had succeeded him as

severity and dangerousness of his illness, rendering it or prime minister, retaining also his dignity necessary for him to take that opportunity of making of Grand-Guardian.'

his wishes known to them. 疾大断惟 A baron of Juy is mentioned in the prefatory is the general name for sickness or notice to one of the lost Books, as having made disease. When the sickness is severe, the the Ch'aou Ming (677), by order of king term is used. -. 'to advance," "to Woo. The one in the text inay be the same, grow.'

grow. He is defined by more perilous.' or a son of his. Juy is referred to the pres. dis. of Chaou-yih (), dep. of Se-ngan, The Daily Explanation,' however, for # Shen-se. The baron of Juy was minister of In- gives i 7 CF, 'it wants only struction. The baron of Töung was probably a little to the extinction of my breath.' the minister of Religion. His principality of T'ung was in the sub. dep. of Hwa ( w *-, 'to come on." - to indep. of Trung-chow. "The duke of Peih,'--see

crease,' or it may be construed with in the Bk. XXIV. Ch‘in Sze-k'ae says that he suc sense of it, to continue. 恐不獲 ceeded to the duke of Chow as chief of all the princes of the east, and in the office of Grand * .--I am afraid I shall

not find the of Wei,'--see on the name of Bk. IX. He or his opportunity to speak solemnly and publicly about

the succession. This is the simplest way of son was now the niinister of Crime. of Maou must have been the minister of Works. Woo Ch‘ing and Këang Shing. Gan-kwo's

"The duke construing this clause, and is that adopted by He is supposed to be called Kung or duke bere method, followed by Ts'ae, is over ingenious :from having been appointed Grand-Assistant. Where Maou was is not certainly known. 恐遂死不得誓言以嗣續 BITI JE, -see on Bk. II., p. 2. By E T'I am afraid I shall forthwith die, and we are to understand the of Bk. not be able to make a public declaration to

develop continuously what I have in my mind.' XIX., p. 1,—the of the Chow Le,

審。評審發訓 with careful Bk. XXXI. HOTÉZE, exercise of thought l'issue instructions.” 5.

五飾

昔君

守敬o達基麗王昔 取文在產

殷陳宣 昏武天後集違教、重 逾。大威之大用則光王 O 訓 嗣命。克肆奠武

The people

make their virtue illustrioris.' This is much

5 The former sovereigns, king Wăn and king. Woo, displayed in

succession their equal glory, making sure provision for the support of the people, and setting forth their instructions. accorded a practical submission; they did so without any opposi

tion, so that their influence extended to Yin, and the great 6 appointment of Heaven was secured. After them, I, the stupid one,

received with reverence the dread decree of Heaven, and continued to keep the great instructions of Wăn and Woo, not daring blindly to transgress them. The brilliant and swecessful rule of IPăm canet Woo. There is no difficulty in this way with

#== 'the former kings. Këang Shing also takes this view, and attributes is used as an adj. 宣重光-'pub

the repetition of to the gasping utterance lished—manifested--their doubled light,'-* repetition of the character gives emphasis to its

of the dying king. This is not necessary. The AT WE W filmi, as Ch'in Ya-yen meaning. I put no comma after the 1st expresses it, continued one the other, and could

as is generally done. 用克達段一

( thereby they could reach to all Yin,' i.e., the better than to understand, with Ma Yung and whole enpire came under their influence. Këang Shing, tirat it is the light of the 6. How king Ching had endeavoured to discharge heavenly bodies combined together, and that his kingly duties. 在後之個一The 重光 * is merely a figurative description of stupid one who was after them. So Ching the virtue of Wăn and Woo, as like the bright- designates himself. Gan-kwò, and Woo Ch‘ing

W find in Thail the idea of 'youth' as well as of -comp. Bk. XVIII., p. á í take it in the stupidity? (17 th in # # * H); same way as there. The various views of its but there is no such idea in the term in Ana., meaning taken by the critics all re-appear on

VIII., xvi. Këang Shing, on the authority of 則肆肆不違,一群| the 說文, and partly also of Ma Yung is found with the meanings of 17, to practise, edits- #DE Źha, from which he and of to toil.” Gan-kwð takes the latter endeavours to force out the meaning of * meaning, and understands the characters or | 武之業,在中夏為諸侯之 Wăn and Wov, ="thus they toiled ; and though ## 'receiving the possession of Wån they toiled, they did nothing contrary to what was right in *** in the common lord of all the princes!'

and Woo, and being in the Central Great Land

敬 MU). So, Iin Che-kte, as far as regards -I reverently met (=set mythe meaning of The other meaning, how self to receive) the dread decree of Heaven.' ever, is preferable. It was approved by Choo By Fee is meant, no doubt

, the t nii He, and adopted by Ts'ac. Acc. to it, the of last par.,--the appointment to the empire, people,” is understood as the subject of enforced by the dread requirements of Heaven

ness of the sun and moon.

this passage.

七節

以亂邦通、艱元時
劉于0安難。子

難子欣
冒威思勸0剑,言悟
貢儀夫小柔弘用
于爾
人:

妝1
非無自應

自能 保 了非

興弗悟爾简明 今天降疾殆

are near.

9.

7 "Now Heaven has laid affliction on me, and it seems as if I

should not again rise or be myself. Do you take clear note of my words, and in accordance with them watch reverently over my

eldest son, Ch'aou, and greatly assist him in the difficulties of his 8 position. Be kind to those who are far off, and help those who

Promote the tranquillity of the States, small and great, and encourage them to well-doing. 9 “I think how a man has to govern himself in dignity and with

decorum :—do not you allow Ch'aou to proceed heedlessly on the impulse of improper motives.' from those who held it. 7. 8. The general | 勸小大眾國,安之,使國得 duties which the ministers would have to perform for his son and successor, 今天至弗|安存勸之,使相勸為善,tran

quillize them, making the States feel in a condi悟-Testae puts a comma at , and joins tion of tranquil safety ; encourage them, mak殆 with the words that follow, as an adverb, | jing them emulate one another in well-doing. ='prohably, it is to be feared that. Gan-速彌 and 大小庶邦 are composite kwo and Këang Shing put the comma after designations for the whole empire. The aim and make it an adj., descriptive of the Special charge to them to watch over the character I prefer the former construction. of his son. 思夫人一

夫人, this 0 ;' will not awake,' i.e., to a

man,'='men' generally, or 'any man.' 自 conscious ability for my duties. 元子亂(一治)于威儀-for 威儀 剑-Ching thus declares his eldest son as on «The Doctrine of the Mean,' xxvii., 3. his successor. Ch'aou was the son's name. He Ü-, 'to advance.' 非幾一 is known in history by his honorary title of

'improper springs,' i.e., of action. Choo He K'ang()). I have not been able to ascertain was asked the meaning of this phrase by one

52 F of his disciples, who said that most critics took 艱難 -no particular hardships and difficul

in the sense of fe perilous,' but that

he thought it should be taken as simply ties are meant, in which the new emperor might be involved, but those of his position generally. , and # =#FIT Ź As the Daily Explanation"has it:一以宗事, things which ought not to be done" 社之重,基業之大,付之一人, The master answered that it meant 可謂艱難矣”柔遠能通微

Ź the 'the small beginnings or springs of

things.' Ching had in view, no doubt, the mind -see the 'Can. of Shun,' p. 16.

of his son, as the spring and regulator of all 勸云云, Ying-ta Bays-又當

又當安| his conduct.

sickness.

see

how old he was at his accession.

On

恤之逆于齊桓崩越還幾。
宅外子长侯南翼出 0
宗延剑虎呂宮太日綴兹
0人於賣假毛保乙衣
丁翼南百以俾命丑于受

室門人二发仲王庭命

[graphic]

10

Immediately on receiving this charge, the officers retired. The tent was then carried out into the court; and on the next day,

being Yih-ch'ow, the king died. 11

II. The Grand-protector then ordered Chung Hwan and Nankeung Maou to instruct Leu Keih, the prince of Tsée, with two shield-and-spearmen and a hundred guards, to meet the prince Ch'aou outside the south gate, and conduct him to one of the wing apartments near to that where the king lay, there to be as chief mourner. .

10. The king's death. 兹既受命」

BEAT charge ; and that ceremony over, it was now

carried out into the court. Into what court? 還(read seven),一弦 is to be taken adverbial- | This question will be best answered and the ly,- A#, “then.' We must understand if I refer to the form of the imperial palace in all the ministers,' as the subject of the time of Chow. It will easily be conceived

by any one who has studied the architecture of 受命 -E, “retired,' i.e.

, from the courts of the high officers throughout the the apartment where they had received the empire at the present day, charge. Gan-kwó, as amplified by Ying-tă, The palace was much more long or deep than makes the meaning to be that they retired from wide, consisting of five series of buildings, around the king to the ceremonial places in continued one after another, so that, if it the apartment appropriate to their different gates had been thrown open, one might have

had been according to etiquette, and all the ranks. In this way the interpreter only gives walked in a direct line from the first gate himself trouble. I prefer the simpler view. to the last. The difft. buildings were separ.

ated by courts partially open and embracing 出露于庭一 --we are obliged

a large space of ground. The gates of the to seek a meaning for here quite difft. different divisions, had their particular names

. from that assigned to it in Bk. xix., p. 1, where The first or outer gate, fronting the south, it denotes—the keeper of the robes.' K'ang

was called P4; the second was called shing would make the # to mean the 'grave ** F4; the third, 1119; the fourth, clothes, and 綴衣= they made the grave | 門; and the fifth 路門, alled also 畢門 clothes the rest the Ź#) and P9. Outside the second gate-the But this view, though defended by Ming-shing, $ -was held the "outer levee," (31 may safely be pronounced absurd. If it were

when the sovereign received the princes and to be admitted, we should have to find a third officers generally. Outside the 5th gate—the meaning for the phrase on its recurrence in p. 4 |-was held the 'audience of govern14. Ts'ae is right in defining it here, after Gankwở, by be, a kind of “tent,' or curtains

ment”治朝), when the king met his minand canopy, set up over the emperor, when he isters, to consult with them on the business of held audiences. This had been prepared when the State. Inside this gate were the buildings he sent for his ministers to give them his last which formed the private apartments, called

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