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JULY abide in prosperity.
aid sincerity,—]' Nor do I dare
to say, as if I knew it, ‘The final end will issue in our misfor
Oh! you have said, O prince, ‘It depends on ourselves.' I
also do not dare to rest in the favour of God, never forecasting at a distance the terrors of Heaven in the present time when there is no murmuring or disobedience among the people;—the
issue is with men.
vour MAY NOT BE PERMANENT. THE DUKE OF CHow Is ANXIOUs, AND PRINCE SIIIH should BE THE SAME, TO SECURE IT BY CULTIVATING THE
VIRTUE OF THE KING. 1. ,—in the
plainness of ancient manners, it is said, when people were talking together they called each other by their names. Shih, however, is honour. ed with the title of ‘prince, which might be given to him, as he had been invested with the ": of Yem. See on the name of Bk.
II. 2. Chow had superseded Yin in the possession of the empire, but it could not be known
beforehand how long it would continue. # H#, 2: #-see Bk. XIV., p. 2. The #
in the next two clauses has no conjunctive force,
but marks the perfect tense. # X. # #! # 5R-compare Bk. XII., p. 17. That
passage seems to have misled the old interpreters, and still to mislead many of the present day, as to the meaning of the text. They make the speaker to have the fate of the past-away dynasty of Yin before him, and not that of their existing Chow.—‘I do not dare to know and say, “The House of Yin at its beginning might have long accorded with prosperous ways,” &c. It is plain to me that the speaker has before him the destiny of Chow, which they of the dynasty must fashion for themselves. Whether it would be long or short must depend on
Should our present successor to his fathers
the dyn.—depends on us,” and supposing that the duke refers to a remark to that effect made at some former period by Shih. Lin Che-k'e and others adduce his language in many parts of his Announcement, e.g. pp. 19, 20, which they think the duke has in view. This is very likely. Other methods to try to get a meaning from the passage are harsh and violent. Gankwā, for instance, took the meaning to be—‘Olı prince, what shall I say? I will say, “You should approve of my remaining in the govt.”" It is strange that Maou K'e-ling should still approve of such a construction. Woo Ch'ing
£ greatly unable to reverence Heaven and the people, and so ring to an end their glory, could we in our families be ignorant of it?
4 The favour of Heaven is not easily preserved. Men lose its favouring appointment because
to be depended on.
Heaven is hard
they cannot pursue and carry out the reverence and brilliant virtue
this part ends corresponds to the H# at the
together,-another instance of Choo He's long sentences in the Announcements of the Shoo.
E. in the same way, and then makes same interpretation must be given of the read5 of their forefathers. Hoo, through whom his virtue was made to affect God; he had also Woo Heen, who regulated the royal House. Tsoo-yih had Woo
Shing from a passage in the “Books of the Early
meant by _E. and ‘the people” by T., so that the expression =
| Others understand “Heaven and Earth’ to be
nk holding that the object of the address was to induce the duke of Shaou to abandon his purpose of retirement, takes the question as addressed to him,-‘Could you be ignorant of it?” The old interpreters, holding that the speaker is much occupied with vindicating his own remaining in the government, take it in the first person, —‘Could I be ignorant. The best plan seems to be to put it as in the translation. It may thus be applied to either of the dukes; and I believe that the duke of Chow intended it both
able to correct our king.
Now I, Tan, being but as a little child, am not
of his forefathers, and make his youth partaker of that.”
He also said, “Heaven is not to be trusted.
Our course is
simply to seek the prolongation of the virtue of the Tranquillizing king, and Heaven will not find occasion to remove its favouring
decree which king Wan received."
II. The duke said, “Prince Shih, I have heard that of ancient time, when T'ang the Successful had received the favouring decree, he had with him E. Yin, making his virtue like that of great Heaven.
Heen. Woo-ting had Kan Pwan.
These ministers carried out their
principles, and effected their arrangements, preserving and regulating the empire of Yin, so that, while its ceremonies lasted, those sove
Book Tsoo-yih (see Pref., n. 26), we should probably find this Woo Heen mentioned in it.
#—see “The Charge to Yuê, Pt. iii., p. 1. We cannot but be surprised that the duke does not make any mention of Foo Yué. Keang Shing throws out the hint that Kan Pwan and Foo Yué may have been the same man,— which is absurd. Gan-shih says that as Pwan was the earliest instructor of Woo-ting, the wisdom which guided that emperor to get Yué for his minister was owing to him; but this does not account for the omission of Yuë in the duke's list. Perhaps something like a reason for it is suggested by the next par. 8. The happy
result of the services of those ministers. 2# #
great ministers just enumerated.—“In accordance with this,'-i.e., their course of action so described—‘they had an arrangement. The meaning is very obscure. The critics, however, all expand it much as Ts'ae does:--> Hi 4
This is ingenious, but it imposes too great violence on the language. j' cannot be taken as the nominative to |%
the translation. Then |% and #E # are
predicates of the emperors of Yin, probably of those who are specially mentioned in the preceding par., the former char. describing them as ‘deceased' (see ‘The Canon of Shun, p. 28), and HE # declaring the fact of their being
associated with Heaven in the sacrifices to it. In the present dyn. all its departed emperors are so honoured at the great sacrificial services. Under the Chow dyn. only How-tseih and king Wăn enjoyed the distinction. The rule of the Yin dyn. seems to have been to associate the five emperors of whom the duke has been speaking. [We have perhaps in this custom a reason for the omission of Foo Yuë iu the prec. par. From the Pwan-kang, Pt. i., 14, we learn that their ministers shared in the sacrifices to the sovereigns of Yin. Each emperor would have one minister as his assessor, and so Woo-ting could not have both Kan Pwan and Foo Yuć. Though the latter may have been the greater man of the two, the sacrificial honour was given to the other as having been the earlier instructor of the emperor. The duke, having the emperors
reigns though deceased were assessors to Heaven, while it extended
9 over many years.
Heaven thus determinately maintained its favouring appointment, and Shang was replenished with men.
various officers, and members of the royal House holding employments, all held fast their virtue, and displayed an anxious solici
tude for the empire.
The smaller officers, and the chiefs in the How and Teen domains, hurried about on their services.
did they all put forth their virtue, and aid their sovereign, so that whatever affairs he, the one man, had in hand, throughout the four quarters of the empire, an entire sincerity was conceded to them as to the indications of the tortoise or the milfoil.”