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the appointment of Heaven in the middle of his life, and enjoyed

the throne for fifty years.”

IV. The duke of Chow said, “Oh! from this time forward, do you who have succeeded to the throne imitate his avoiding of excess in his sights, his ease, his excursions, his hunting; and from the myriads

of the people receive only the correct amount of contribution.

Do

not allow yourself the leisure to say, ‘To-day I will indulge in pleasure. This is not holding out a lesson to the people, nor the

way to secure the favour of Heaven.

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Men will on the contrary kwö points É 4. # HE, 2: ź, and

understands the duke to have in view all future

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greatly imitate you, and practise evil.

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Become not like Show, the

king of Yin, who went quite astray, and was abandoned to the

practice of drunkenness.”

V. The duke of Chow said, “Oh ! I have heard it said that, in the case of the ancients, their ministers discharged their functions in warning

and admonishing them, in protecting and loving them, in teaching and instructing them; and among their people there was hardly

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one who would impose on them by extravagant language or deceiv

ing tricks.

If you will not listen to this and profit by it, your

ministers will imitate you, and so the correct laws of the former

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kings, both small and great, will be changed and disordered. The

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people blaming you will disobey and rebel in their hearts;—yea,

they will curse you with their mouths.” VI. The duke of Chow said, “Oh I those kings of Yin, Chung

tsung, Kaou-tsung, and Tsoo-kéâ, with king Wän of our Chow,—these

four men carried their knowledge into practice.

If it was told

them—“The inferior people murmur against you, and revile you,' then they paid great and reverent attention to their conduct; and with reference to the faults imputed to them they said, “Our faults

are really so."

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They acted thus, not simply not daring to cherish

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anger.

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If you will not listen to this and profit by it, when men with

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extravagant language and deceptive tricks say to you, ‘The inferior £ are murmuring against you and reviling you,' you will elieve them. Doing this, you will not be always thinking of your ' duties, and will not cultivate a large and generous heart. ou will confusedly punish the crimeless, and put the innocent to

death.
centrated upon your person.”

There will be a general murmuring, which will be con

VII. The duke of Chow said, “Oh! you king, who have succeeded to the throne, make a study of these things.”

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I. The duke of Chow spake to the following effect, “Prince Shih,

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CoNTENTs. Ts'ae says that the duke of Shaou had announced his purpose to retire from office on account of his age, when the duke of Chow persuaded him to remain at his post; and the reasons which he set before him were recorded to form this Book. If this was the design of the duke of Chow, he was a master of the art of veiling his thoughts with a cloud of words. There are expressions which may be taken, indeed, as intimating a wish that the prince Shih should continue at court, but some violence has to be put upon them.

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2 Heaven, unpitying, sent down ruin on Yin; Yin has lost its appointment, and the princes of our Chow have received it. however, to say, as if I knew it,

I do not dare, ‘The foundation will ever truly

he was really entertaining such a feeling from any cause, and had in consequence sought leave to withdraw from public life, the duke of Chow thought it his best plan to make no open reference to those delicate points. The two principal ideas in the address arethat the favour of Heaven can only be permanently secured for a dynasty by the virtue of its sovereigns; and that that virtue is secured mainly by the counsels and help of virtuous ministers. The ablest sovereigns of Shang are mentioned, and the ministers by whose aid it was, in a great measure, that they became what they were. The cases of Wän and Woo of their own dynasty, similarly aided by able men, are adduced in the same way; and the speaker adverts to the services which they—the two dukes—had already rendered to their House and their sovereign, and insists that they must go on to the end, and accomplish still greater things. It may be that he is all the while combating some suspicion of himself in the mind of prince Shih, and rebuking some purpose which Shih had formed to abandon his post at the helm of the State; but this is only matter of inference, and does not by any means clearly appear. It will be seen that I have for convenience' sake, arranged the three and twenty paragraphs in four chapters.

Ch. I. Pp. 1–6. Chow Is FoR THE PRESENT RAISED BY THE FAvoUR OF HEAvEN TO THE sovKREIGNTY OF THE EMPIRE, BUT THAT FA

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