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3 he understands the law of the support of the inferior people. I have observed among the inferior people, that where the parents have diligently laboured in sowing and reaping, their sons often do not understand this painful toil, and abandon themselves to ease, and to village slang, and become quite disorderly. Or where they do not do so, they throw contempt on their parents, saying, “Those

old people have heard nothing and know nothing.

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4 II. The duke of Chow said, “Oh ! I have heard that aforetime the emperor of Yin, Chung-tsung, was grave, humble, reverential, and

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reaping are the toilsome business of the husbandman. This must first be known, and then plans for ease may be laid. Soo Shih objected to this that the object of the duke of Chow was to get the king to put away the thought of ease, and it was not likely he would begin to suggest to him the idea of ‘planning for ease.” The criticism is subtle, but correct. “What the inferior people depend on is their hard toil in the fields. That is the law of their support. Ease comes from it as a matter of course. Ease finds them; they do not seek it. 3.

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fearful. He measured himself with reference to the appointment of Heaven, and cherished a reverent apprehension in governing the people, not daring to indulge in useless ease. It was thus that Chung-tsung enjoyed the throne for seventy and five years. “If we come to the time of Kaou-tsung, he toiled at first away from the court, and was among the inferior people. When he came to the throne, it may be said that, while he was in the mourning shed, for three years he did not speak. Afterwards he was still inclined not to speak; but when he did speak, his words were full of

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harmonious wisdom.

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# fif É J#—by jčí Ts'ae and many others understand # #!, “Heavenly principles, so that the meaning of the clause is, “He measured (= defined the rules of life for) himself in accordance with heavenly principles. But this is needless refining. The meaning rather is that Kaou-tsung felt that “the appointment of Heaven, which placed him upon the throne, brought with it certain duties and responsibilities, on his discharge of which depended his retaining Heaven's favour; he therefore measured himself to know whether his course was what it ought to be. Woo Ch'ing brings this meaning out very

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He did not dare to indulge in useless and easy

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ways, but admirably and tranquilly presided over the empire of Yin, till in all its States, great and small, there was not a single murmur. It was thus that Kaou-tsung enjoyed the throne for fifty and nine

years.

“In the case of Tsoo-kéâ, he would not unrighteously be emperor,

and was at first one of the inferior people.

When he came to the

throne, he understood the law of the support of the inferior people, and was able to exercise a protecting kindness towards their masses, and did not dare to treat with contempt the widower and widows. Thus it was that Tsoo-kéâ enjoyed the throne for thirty and three

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B& # £, E &# X #,—see The Charge to Yué, Pt. i., p. 1. I have said there that we are not to suppose that the emperor during the years of mourning maintained a total silence, but only kept from speaking on governmental matters. This is perhaps indicated by the #. H. '#X #, # 75 #, -I have translated this according to the account which we have in the beginning of “The Charge to Yue.' K'ang-shing supposed that the duke is still speaking of Kaou-tsung during the time of mourning; but that is very unlikely. The history is evidently being carried on and for

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spoken of here was the son of Kaou-tsung, and maintained that we were to find him in Tae-kéâ, the grandson of T'ang. But from Chung-tsung the duke comes on to Kaou-tsung, approaching to the rise of their own dynasty of Chow;-how unnatural the address would be if he were now to go back to the beginning of the times of Yin ' Moreover, the son of Kaou-tsung was styled Tsoo-kéâ, while the grandson of T'ang was called Tae-kéâ. Nor does the confinement of Tae-kéâ for a season by E. Yin for his misdeeds sufficiently answer the require

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j, ‘Tae-kea, being king, proved unrighteous. ie had long displayed the conduct of an unworthy person, and E Yin confined him in

T'ung. But the meaning thus given to PJ, A.

which has already occurred three times in the address, and always with the signification of ‘the inferior people, without any implication of unworthinesss, must be rejected. On every ground we must conclude that the sovereign spoken of was not the grandson of T'ang. He was the son of Kaou-tsung. K'ang shing has a story that Woo-ting wanted to disinherit Tsookéâ's elder brother in favour of him, and that Tsoo-kéâ, thinking such a proceeding would be unrighteous, withdrew and lived for a time among

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“The emperors which arose after these all their life-time enjoyed

CaSe.

From their birth enjoying ease, they did not understand the

painful toil of sowing and reaping, nor hear of the hard labours of

the inferior people.

They only sought after excessive pleasures,

and so not one of them enjoyed the throne for a long period. They continued for ten years, for seven or eight, for five or six, or

perhaps only for three or four.”

III. The duke of Chow said, “Oh! there likewise were king T'ae and king Ke of our own Chow, who attained to humility and reverential

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King Wän dressed meanly, and gave himself to the work of

10 tranquillization, and to that of husbandry. Admirably mild and beautifully humble, he cherished and protected the inferior people, and

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showed a fostering kindness to the widower and widows. to midday, and from midday to sundown, he did not allow

morning

From

himself time to eat;—thus seeking to secure the happy harmony

of the myriads of the people.

King Wän did not dare to go to any

excess in his excursions or his hunting, and from the various States

he received only the correct amount of contribution.

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He received

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