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19 change for you.

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the decree of Heaven; do not resist me; I dare not have any further

Do not murmur against me.

Ye know that your

fathers of the Yin dynasty had their archives and narratives showing

20 how Yin superseded the appointment of Hea.

Ye now indeed say

further, “The officers of Hea were chosen and promoted to the

imperial court, or had their places among the mass of officers.”

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the one man, listen only to the virtuous and employ them; and it was with this view that I presumed te seek you out in your hea

venly city of Shang. pity on you. it is by the decree of Heaven.”

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I thereby follow the ancient example, and have Your present non-employment is no fault of mine;

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evidently to understand ź +, ‘the officers of the Hea dynasty. The officers of Yin urge that they were not treated as those of Hea had been. Bj—all agree that the capital of the Yin dynasty and country about it are here intended. But why is it called ‘the heavenly city?' K'ang-shing says, “Because it had been originally established by Heaven. Leu Tsoo-heen and others say, ‘Because there the emperors of Yin-the sons of Heaven—had dwelt. Wang Suh says: —“The king means to say, “Shang, which is now my heavenly city.” I think it may be spoken ironically—‘your heavenly city. Këang Shing takes the language

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“The king says, “Ye numerous officers, formerly, when I came from Yen, I greatly mitigated the penalty in favour of the lives of

the people of your four countries.

At the same time I made evi

dent the punishment appointed by Heaven, and removed you to this distant abode, that you might be near the ministers who had served in our honoured capital, and learn their much obedience.”

view. The king is evidently speaking of what he had done to those whom he was addressing.

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meaning is that the king hoped their removal to Lö would lead them to virtue and loyalty, so that it was really an act of kindness to them. While they were vicious and disaffected, it would be contrary to the will of Heaven to confer dignities and offices on them. P. 21. The officers and people of Yin had really been dealt with very leniently. This par. refers to the time three or four years back, when the rebellion of Woo-käng, supported by the king's uncles, had been disposed of. The wild tribe of the Yen—a district corresponding to the pres. dis. of K'éuh-fow, dep. of Yen-chow, Shan-tung —had joined with the insurgents. We hear of them again in Bk. XVIII., as in arms a second time against the new dynasty. The crushing of the Yen had been the last act in the suppression of the rebellion. When that was accomplished, the duke of Chow—for he was the agent, though the thing is here ascribed to the king, after the manner of ‘The Great Announcement’ —had time to deal with the people of Yin. Our natural conclusion from this par. is certainly that many of the people of Yin were then removed

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people.”’’ The meaning then is—‘I made an end of the rulers of your four kingdoms, thereby executing on them the punishment appointed by Heaven. But this is very far-fetched, and unwarranted. Nor is the view given by Kéang Shing more likely.—“I sent down lessons and commands for you, the people of the four kingdoms, and carried clearly out the punishment appointed by Heaven upon their rulers.' By the ‘four kingdoms’ we are to understand the “imperial domain of Yin, which had been portioned out to Woo-käng, and three of the king's uncles;—see the note on Bk. VI., p. 12. #5 R w -

... #####-#####" #. Both #and # are defined by # ‘far,” “distant.” }{2 H. Hi. # #, 3. #, —# is here taken as = # , ‘the honoured Chow, a name given to Haou, the old capital of Chow, in distinction from the new capital of

J# at Lö. It was in the duke's mind, in prospect of the new capital, that the old trusted ministers of Chow should remove to it, when the influence of their character and principles would affect beneficially the adherents of the old dynasty brought there into contact with them. The translation is after the ‘Daily Ex

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us, serve us, and be ministers to us, honouring and imitating the rich and full obedience of our Chow.'

22

23 24

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“The king says, “I declare to you, ye numerous officers of Yin, —now I have not put you to death, and therefore I repeat to you my charge again. I have built this great city here in Lö, considering that there was no other place in which to receive my guests from the four quarters, and also that you, ye numerous officers, might here with zealous activity, perform the part of ministers to us with much obedience. You have still here I may say your grounds, and here you may still rest in your duties and dwellings. If you can reverently obey, Heaven will favour and compassionate

you. If you cannot reverently obey, you will not only not have

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25 on your persons.

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your lands, but I will also carry to the utmost Heaven's inflictions

Now you may here dwell in your villages,

and perpetuate your families; you may pursue your occupations

and enjoy your years in this Ló; your children also will prosper:

—all from your being removed here.” “The king says,—; and again he says, “Whatsoever I have

spoken, is all on account of my anxiety about your residence here.”

punishment of Heaven there spoken of had about their descendants, and makes £

only deprived them of their grounds in Yin; this would deprive them of their lives. 25.

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I. The duke of Chow said, “Oh ! the superior man rests in this,

2 —that he will have no luxurious ease.

He first understands the

painful toil of sowing and reaping, how it conducts to ease, and thus

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ing Luxurious Ease. These words are taken from the first paragraph. They are the keynote to the whole Book, and hence are rightly taken to designate it. Gaubil says the characters mean—“Il nefaut passe livrer au plaisir. Medhurst entitles the Book—‘On avoiding luxurious ease.' % and £k are used interchangeably. Their primary signification is that of ‘idleness;’ compare Mencius, VII., Pt. II., xxiv. 1, and IV., Pt. II., xxx. 2. But as the character is used in the Shoo, it does not denote a mere passive idleness, but one in which, while the proper duties are neglected, improper lusts and gratifications may be eagerly sought; see the ‘Counsels of Yu, p. 14; et al. Still the idea of the term here is that of “luxurious or indulgent

ease.” # is used as the imperative #. The Book is found in both the texts. It comes under the division of #|| or ‘Instructions.”

CoNTENTs. The prefatory note is simply to the effect that ‘the duke of Chow made the Woo Yih; without a word about the time or occasion of it. The general view, which there is no reason to dispute, is that the duke of Chow addressed it to king Ching, soon after he had resigned the government into his hands. That the minister thought it necessary thus to admonish the young sovereign confirms what I have several times urged, that there was between them a measure of dissatisfaction on the one

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division into seven chapters is thus suggested.

In parr. 1-3, the duke leads the king to find a rule for himself in the laborious toils which devolve on the husbandman. In parr. 4–7, he refers to the long reigns of three of the sovereigns of the Yin dynasty, and the short reigns of others, as illustrating how the blessing of Heaven rests on the diligent sovereign. In parr. 6-11, the example of their own kings, T“ae, Ke, and Wän is adduced with the same object. In parr. 12, 13, the duke addresses the king personally, and urges him to follow the example of king Wän and flee from that of Show. In 14, 15, he stimulates him by reference to ancient precedents to adopt his counsels, and shows the evil effects that will follow if he refuse to do so. In parr. 16–18, he shows him by the examples of the good kings of Yin and of king Wän how he ought to have regard to the opinions of the common people, and gird himself to diligence. The last par. is a single admonition that the king should lay what had been said to heart.

Ch. I. Pp. 1–3. THE GREAT PRINCIPLE, Th AT THERE SHOULD BE No INDU LG ENT EASE. It is ENFORCED BY A REFERENCE TO THE TOILS of HUSBANDRY, AND THE FREQUENT DEGENERACY OF THE SONS OF THOSE WI10 IIAWE TOILED

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