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observant of your course.

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Let him meet with no evil or sickness.

Let him satisfy his descendants for myriads of years with your virtue.

Let the people of Yin enjoy protracted I' the messengers, “The king has sent you to

He also said to in, which has received

his charges well ordered for myriads of years; but let the people ever have to observe the virtue cherished by my son."

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the poor remnant of Yin long enjoy the happiness of prosperity and plenty.’ 28. We are to suppose that the duke now addresses the messengers who had come from the king, and sends the counsel here contained to Haou, to the effect that though he would do his duty to carry out the admonitions which had been sent to the people of Yin, yet the government of them could only be effected by the personal virtue of the king.

I am well aware, in thus interpreting these four paragraphs, that serious objections may be taken to the way in which the whole is supplemented, and many of the clauses explained. All that can be said is that the interpretation seems to me more likely than any other that has been proposed. It will suffice if I subjoin here that proposed by Gan-kwó. He first reads

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by which I will complete the enlightenment of

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you, my son, is to complete the virtue of your grandfather Wän.” This he says with reference to the ceremonies which he would establish. “The reason why you must dwell here in the middle of the land, is that Wän and Woo have sent you to come and carefully teach the people of Yin, recognising their charge, and giving

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He then begins a new par, with +, and on

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29

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VII. On the day Mow-shin, the king in the new city performed the

annual winter sacrifice, offering a red bull to king He then commanded a declaration to be prepar

same to king Woo.

Wān, and the

ed, which was done by Yih in the form of a prayer, and it simpl

announced the remaining behind of the duke of Chow.

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The king's

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subsequENT GoverNMENT. 29. JX JR,

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guests, on occasion of the killing the victims and offering the sacrifice,

all made their appearance. and poured out the libation.

The king entered the grand apartment,

The king charged the duke of Chow to remain, and Yih, the preparer of the document, made the declaration;—all in the 12th

month.

Then the duke of Chow greatly sustained the decree which Wän aud Woo had received, through the space of seven years.

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b :

==E 75 W ##,j}#}#}} |&#ji, ‘the king entered into the great apartment (i.e., the middle hall of the temple), and poured the fragrant spirits on the ground to invite the descent of the spirits.” 30. I understand this par. as a resume of the preceding, with an additional note of time. 31. According to the translation which I have given, the ‘seven years’ mentioned are to be calculated from the 7th year of king Ching. As Ch'in Sze-k'ae says:“The duke of Chow acted as regent for seven ears, and then wished to retire from public ife; but king Ching detained him in the govt. of Lö, where he spent other seven years, making in all fourteen years from the death of king

Woo (see the # #). This view of course is contrary to the old interpreters and those who adhere to their views. They think that the ‘seven years’ here are simply the seven years of the duke's regency.

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I. In the third month, at the commencement of the government of the duke of Chow in the new city of Lö, he announced the royal will

The NAME of the Book.-2: +, * The

numerous Officers. By the “numerous officers’ are intended the officers of the previous dynasty, who had been removed along with the people to the new city of Lö. The phrase occurs several times, and is taken to designate the Book, which indeed was addressed to those officers. It is found in both the texts, and has its place among the ‘Announcements’ of the Shoo.

The prefatory note about the Book (see page 10) says that when the new city of Ching-chow was completed, the obstinate people of Yin were removed to it; and that it was then that the duke of Chow announced to them the royal will, as it is here set forth. This statement has given rise to some discussion. We have met with various passages in the two last Books, which make it appear that many of the people of Yin had been removed to the country about the Lö before the dukes of Shaou and Chow received their mission to proceed thither. The same thing may be argued from passages in this Book itself as well. Hence Ts'ae follows in the wake of Woo Ts'aelaou, and says we have here an instance of how little the notices in the so-called Confucian

reface are to be depended on. Maou K'e-ling has endeavoured to weaken the force of their observations, but with little success.

It is just possible that king Ching, on returning to Haou after the sacrifice described in the end of last Book, ordered another migration of the people of Yin to Lö, and on a large scale; and that their arrival at the new settlement gave occasion to this address. This would reconcile the statement in the preface and the intimations which are found of previous removals of the people; but it can be given only as a supposition.

of Chow's government of Lö.

CoNTENTs. The object of the announcement is to reconcile the minds of the people of Yin, and especially of the higher classes among them, to their lot. The day of Yin had gone by. The House of Chow was in the ascendant. They had been dealt with kindly and generously. They had better acquiesce in their condition, and by loyalty deserve well of their new masters. If they did not do so, a worse thing would come upon them.

The address or announcement, much broken up, occupies the whole of the Book after the introductory paragraph. It has been divided into four chapters. The first, parr. 2–4, vindicates the justice of the sovereigns of Chow in taking the empire to themselves. The second

arr. 5–15, unfolds the causes why the dynasty of Yin had been set aside. The third, parr. 16–23, shows how it had been necessary to remove the people to Lö, and with what good intention the new city had been built. The fourth, parr. 24–26, shows that comfort and prosperity are here at Lö open to their attainment, while by perseverance in disaffection '' will only bring misery and ruin on themSelves.

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third month is most naturally reckoned from the sacrifice described in the concluding parr. of the last Book. Some call the year the first of Ching's reign, i.e., after he attained his majority. Others call it the first of the duke Woo Ching

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2 to the officers of the Shang dynasty, saying, “The king speaks to this effect:—‘Ye numerous officers who remain from the dynasty

of Yin, great ruin came down

on Yin, from the want of pity

in compassionate Heaven, and we, the princes of Chow, received

its favouring decree.

We accordingly felt charged with its bright terrors; carried out the punishments which kin

inflict; rightly

disposed of the appointment of Yin; and finished the work of God. 3 Now, ye numerous officers, it was not that our small country dared to aim at the appointment of Yin. But Heaven was not with

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