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presume to know and say, ‘It could not continue longer. The fact was simply that, for want of the virtue of reverence, the decree in its favour prematurely fell to the ground. Similarly, I do not presume to know and say, ‘The dynasty of Yin was to enjoy the favouring decree of Heaven for so many years, nor do I presume to say, ‘It could not continue longer. The fact simply was that, for want of the virtue of reverence, the decree in its favour prematurely fell to the ground. The king has now inherited the decree,—the same decree, I consider, which belonged to those two dynasties. Let him seek to inherit the virtues of their meritorious sovereigns;—especially at this commencement of his duties. “Oh I it is as on the birth of a son, when all depends on the training of his early life, through which he may secure his wisdom in the future, as if it were decreed to him. Now Heaven may
is more than # 5- fü, which most +. of the paraphrases give for it. It indicates not only that Hea received the favouring decree of 3:)
Heaven, but that it was under that decree. The 2: . This must be the
guardian will not venture to say that Heaven TT # 4. ź # *P. had only decreed so many years to its rule.
18. —the ER is to be understood Pp. 19–23. The great issues depending on the
}% fii, }% king's now, on his assuming the government, taking
of #, “Heaven. The next clause is in apposi- the right course; and the Guardian's anxiety that
by his virtuous reverence and gentle sway he should
it differently, and explains down to J where | 19. # If £ #-ly 3)] AE we
meaning, but the language is very elliptical
have decreed wisdom to our king;
it may have decreed good fortune
or bad; it may have decreed a long course of years:—we only know that now is with him the commencement of his duties. “Dwelling in the new city, let the king now sedulously cultivate
the virtue of reverence.
When he is all-devoted to this virtue, he
may pray to Heaven for a long-abiding decree in his favour.
“In the position of king, let
him not, because of the excesses
of the people in violation of the laws, presume also to rule by
the violent infliction of death.
When the people are regulated
gently, the merit of government is seen.
is one sentence, and a good instance of the long sentences of the Shoo. Gan-kwö and Kéang Shing, indeed, break it up into two, and understand the first part as meaning—‘Let not the king go to excess inemploying the people, beyond the regular periods when he may call them out in the public service. By doing so, he would, as Mencius phrases it, rob the people of their time, and take them away from their necessary labours in agriculture (see Mencius, page 11). But the introduction of such a topic seems foreign to the style of the Announcement. It
involves, moreover, taking the JR i: which
follow as–JR 3%, which is very harsh. The subject of avoiding punishments in the administration in govt. was a favourite one with king Ching and his ministers. See many pas
—‘when the people accord there is merit. They must be ruled, “in harmony with their feelings, and the true laws of their nature.” Ts'ae observes that the people may be compared to the water of a stream when it is overflowing and spreading abroad; it is acting contrary to its nature. But if you dam it up, you only make the evil worse.
Lead it into its proper course, and you accoul
22 “It is for him who is in the position of king to overtop all with
In this case the people will imitate him throughout
the whole empire, and the king will become more illustrious.
saying, ‘We have received the decree of Heaven, and it shall be
great as the long-continued years of Hea,—it shall not fail of the
long-continued years of Yin.”
I wish the king through the inferior
people to receive the long-abiding decree of Heaven.”
and bowed to the ground, and said, “I, a small minister, presume with the king's heretofore hostile people, with all his officers, and his loyal friendly people, to maintain and receive his majesty's dread
command and brilliant virtue. That the king should finally obtain the decree all complete, and that he should become illustrious,—this I dare not to labour about I only respectfully bring these offerings to present to his Majesty, to assist in his prayers to Heaven for its long-abiding decree.”
as complimentary to the ministers and officers and transmitting the crown to his descendants. of Yin, in whom loyal feelings might arise when | That must be the king's own work. The they were thus spoken of. The ‘friendly peo- - "- -
ple are the adherents of the House of Chow. £ :" : '' that his 6 must be the king's charge for about S con effect it. - # ZN. Z, Z\", —the king would be coming to Lö, and by so
the building of Lö. H]] #has more sound lemn sacrifices inaugurate the new city, and , then the offerings would be useful. This is a
than sense. +E # 3: JR #,—this delicate way of conveying to him those expres
describes the king's consolidation of the dynasty, sions of the princes' fealty.
[In the third month when the moon began to wane, the duke of Chow commenced the foundations and proceeded to build the new city at Lö of the eastern States. The people from every quarter assembled in great harmony. From the How, Teen, Nan, Ts'ae, and Wei domains the various officers stimulated this harmony of the people, and introduced them to the business there was for
The duke of Chow encouraged them all to diligence, and
made a great announcement about the execution of the works.] I. The duke of Chow bowed his head to his hands and then to the ground, saying, “Herewith I report the execution of my commission
# Announcement about Lö. The prefatory note (see page 10) says:- The duke of Shaou having surveyed the localities, the duke of Chow went to build this capital, called Ching Chow, and sent a messenger to announce the divinations. With reference to this, the ANNOUNCEMENT ABOUT Lö was made. As will be seen from the next note, however, the action of the Book goes many months beyond the report about the survey and divinations; but it all has reference, more or less, to the city of Lö. It may well be said to be about Lö. The use of the term “Announcement’ has its difficulties, and must be taken more vaguely than in the account of the Announcements of the Shoo which I have given on page 177. The Book is found in both texts.
CoNTENTs. Ts'ae says:—“The arrangements for the building of Lö having been made, the duke of Chow sent a messenger to inform the king of the result of his divinations. The historian recorded this as the announcement about Lo, and at the same time recorded a dialogue between the king and his minister, and how the king charged the duke to remain at Lö and conduct the government of it. He goes on to
say more particularly:-‘Parr. 1-3 contain the duke's message about his divinations; and par. 4 gives the king's reply. Parr. 5–13 are occupied with instructions from the duke to the king on the measures which he should pursue on taking up his residence at Lö. In parr. 14 –21, the king charges the duke to remain at Lö, and undertake its government. In parr. 22–24, the duke responds, accepting the charge, and dwells on the duties which the king and himself would have to discharge. Parr. 25–28 relate the action of the duke on a certain message and gift from the king, intended for his special honour. In parr. 29–31, the historian relates to sacrifices offered in Lö by the king, and the proclamation which he issued, and adds how long the duke continued in his government; —showing how the duke began the city and completed it, and how king Ching, after offering the sacrifices and inaugurating the government, returned to Haou, and did not after all make his capital at Lö.'
The Seven divisions thus indicated, present themselves to any careful student of the Book. Maou K'e-ling, differing widely from Ts'ae in his view of the general tenour, and of particular