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king and your Grace.

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multitudes of Yin must come from you with whom is the manage

ment of affairs.

“Oh! God dwelling in the great heavens has changed his decree

in favour of his eldest son, and this great dynasty of Yin.

Our

king has received that decree. Unbounded is the happiness connected with it, and unbounded is the anxiety:—Oh! how can he be

other than reverent P

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harsh and forced. In the translation I have preferred to follow the views of Ts'ae, who himself followed Choo He. There is a great assembly of the two dukes and the princes who were with them at Lö. The duke of Chow is about to return, or at least to send a communication, to king Ching in Haou. The duke of Shaou, revering the king's majesty in the regent, takes the opportunity to send by him the loyal presents of the princes, and his own loyal wishes and advices to the court. And there was the greater propriety in his doing so now, as it was understood that the duke of Chow was about to withdraw from the duties of the regency, and the king might be expected to take the administration of affairs into his own hands.

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course of their duty, and leading in the way of it. The duke delicately avoids any direct mention of the king, but he really intends him as ‘the manager of affairs. In this way we see the force of the H. which the old interpreters could not manage. Pp. 9-12. With the favour shown by God to the king there was connected much anxiety. He must reverently cherish the thought of his responsibilities and duties; learn from the experience of the former dynasties; and listen to the advice of his

wise and aged ministers. 9. F: 5- _E.

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verent in the strongest way. On the meaning of this “being reverent’ Ts'ae says, that ‘it is being sincere and without guile, the eyes, ears, words, and movements all being accordant with reason; the likings and dislikings, the usings and refusings never contrary to the will of Heaven. When one's virtue thus agrees with that of Heaven, he will surely be able to receive the

bright favouring decree of Heaven' (# Jill

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“When Heaven rejected and made an end of the decree in favour of the great State of Yin, there were many of the former intelligent kings of Yin in heaven. The king, however, who had succeeded to them, the last of their race, from the time of his entering into their appointment, proceeded in such a way as at last to keep the wise in obscurity and the vicious in office. The poor people in such a case, carrying their children and leading their wives, made their moan to Heaven. They even fled away, but were apprehended again. Oh! Heaven had compassion on the people of the four quarters; its favouring decree lighted on our earnest founders. Let the king sedulously cultivate the virtue of reverence.

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11

12

13

BK. XII. Pp. 11–13. THE ANNOUNCEMENT OF THE DUKE OF SHAOU.

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- As b _–E. {# HIJ, # | j “Examining the men of antiquity, there was the founder of the Hea dynasty. Heaven guided his mind, allowed his descendants to succeed him, and protected them. He acquainted himself with Heaven, and was obedient.—But in process of time the decree in his favour fell to the ground. So also when we examine the case of Yin. Heaven guided its founder, so that he corrected the errors of Shang, and it protected his descendants. He also acquainted himself with Heaven, and was obedient.—But now the decree in favour of him has fallen to the ground. Our king has now come to the throne in his youth:— let him not slight the aged and experienced, for it may be said of them that they have studied the virtuous conduct of our ancient worthies, and still more, that they have matured their plans in the light of Heaven. “Oh! although the king is young, yet is he the eldest son of Heaven. Let him but effect a great harmony with the people, and

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# ‘the holder of Hea, we are to understand imperative. #-see Bk. IX., p. 5. The H ul

, as the founder of the Hea dynasty. So by may be taken as in the translation (and it is }} T'ang is meant. % Bē-Hi better taken so), or we may understand it, with

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T'ang, it was not necessary to take notice of in their advice there we'''u'e nothing the transmission of the throne to his descend- contrary to what was right.

ants. The hereditary principle had long been - - '.....” |established [H] (=#|) # 5: + = | .. Pp. 13 18. The importance of the king s poss • Zā’ tion, and duties to which he must address himself,

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3) that will be the blessing of the

THE SHOO KING.

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present time. Let not the king

presume to be remiss in this, but continually regard and stand in awe of the perilousness of the people. “Let the king come here as the vicegerent of God, and undertake himself the duties of government in the centre of the land. Tan said, ‘Now that this great city has been built, from henceforth he may be the materof great Heaven; from henceforth he may reverently sacrifice to the upper and lower spirits; from henceforth he may in

this central spot administer successful government.’

Thus shall the

king enjoy the favouring regard of Heaven all complete, and the government of the people will now be prosperous.

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=labour himself in the midst of the land. The ‘himself” must have reference to the young king, now undertaking the responsibilities of govt. }#-4T H, “to labour. Lö is said to be ‘in the middle of the land’ from its central position. It must have been, in the time of Chow, about the central spot of the empire, and was therefore well fitted to be the seat of administration. The commentators speak of it as not only in the middle of the land, but as ‘in the centre of heaven and earth, and they undertake to show how this was determined by means of a dial 1 See the whole geodesy of the duke of Chow, in the Chow Le, Bk. IX., pp. 26–31.

Lin Che-k'e takes these two clauses as historical, and considers them to be decisive on the point of the king's being at this time in Lö. It seems to me much more natural to read them

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'if, "to continue God.” We often find it said | rule that ‘ministers should be called by their

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15

16 17

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“Let the king first bring unde

O Jiji, H.

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r his influence the managers of

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affairs of Yin, associating them with the managers of affairs of our

dynasty of Chow.

This will regulate their perverted natures, and

they will make daily advancement. “Let the King make reverence the resting-place of his mind. He may not but maintain the virtue of reverence. “We should by all means survey the dynasties of Hea and Yin. I do not presume to know and say, ‘The dynasty of Hea was to enjoy the favouring decree of Heaven for so many years, nor do I

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to be extended to all the sovereigns of the two dynasties. Moreover, what was said above had reference more especially to the establishment of those dynasties by the blessing of Heaven; here the subject is their fall, for want of ‘the

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