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THE BOOKS OF CHOW.

BOOK XII. THE ANNOUNCEMENT OF THE DUKE OF SHAOU.

豐。則步未六惟 VE
OZÍ EH
惟于周朝乙越月

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1 I. In the second month, on the day Yih-we, six days after the full moon, the king early in the morning proceeded from Chow, and

The Name of the Book.-7. The According to Sze-ma Ts'een, Shih belonged Announcement of the duke of Shaou.' Shaou

to the imperial House of Chow, and consequentwas the name of a place within the imperial ly had the surname Ke (kole). The historian, domain, corresponding to the present district of Hwang-poo Meili, says he was a son of king Hwan-k'euh (ti il), in the small dep. of Wăn by a concubine KI ŽE F); Keang ( W), Shan-se. It was the appa nage -on what authority I cannot tell. King Woo

appointed him to the principality of The Northof Shih (po), one of the ablest of the men who

ern Yen' CHERE), corresponding to the pres. lent their aid to the establishment of the dynasty of Chow. He appears here as the Great- dep. of Shun-t'een (im F), Chih-le, which guardian' # of king Ching; and we have was held by his descendants fully nine hundred met with him before in “ The Hounds of Leu,' years. He remained himself, however, at the and • The Metal-bound Coffer.' He was one of imperial court. We find him often styled the 'the three dukes,' =2), or highest officers

*Chief of Shaou' (710); and Ts'een says of the dynasty, and is frequently styled that all the country west of Shen (Beta) the 'duke of Shaou.' He appears here in con

under him, as all east of it was under the duke nection with one of the most important enter of Chow. See the +19, il prizes of the duke of Chow, the building of the city of Loh (洛邑), as a new and central . His posthumous capital of the empire. King Woo had conceived title was K‘ang (l), and hence he is somethe idea of such a city, but it was not carried

times referred to as fully into effect till the reign of his son ;-see

召康公奭, As to on the second paragraph below. In Lõh the

the date of the Announcement, see on par. 1. duke of Shaou composed the 'Announcement'

It is found in both texts. which forms the subject-matter of this Book, CONTENTS. The first seven paragraphs are and sent it by the hands of the duke of Chow introductory to the body of the Book, which is to the young emperor. It might, perhaps, with composed of the Announcement of Shih. They more than equal propriety, have been styled contain various information about the surveying The Instructions of the duke of Shaou' (andsidlarning and building forf LöhomeWe may ID

chapter. Parr. 8-22, contain the Announce

was

下至太日照惟來宅周太 宅于保戊越丙三越公保 厥洛朝中三午月若相先

至于

2 came to Fung. Thence the Grand-guardian went before the duke of

Chow to inspect the localities, and in the third month, on the day Mow-shin, the third day after the first appearance of the new moon on Ping-woo, came in the morning to Lo. He consulted the tortoise about the localities, and having obtained favourable indications, he ment, which, however, commences properly with Bamboo Books.' The building of Lo is aspar. 9. The Complete Digest' says it may be signed to his 7th year, which was, on the divided into three parts. In the first, parr. 9 received system, B.c. 1,109 (or 1,108), and acc. -12, Shih sets forth the uncertainty of the to the Bamboo Books B.C. 1038. It is enough favour of Heaven, and urges the young king to call attention to this point here, without to cultivate the virtue of reverence' in order going into further discussion about it. Ch'ing to secure its permanenue, concluding with a K'ang-shing proposed to change = into recommendation to him not to neglect his aged and experienced advisers. The second, parr. - $, in which case the year would have be13—18, speaks of the importance and difficulty of the imperial duties, and enforces the same gun with Z , the 11th cycle day ; and he virtue of reverence by reference to the rise assigned the building of Lð, after Fuh-shang, and fall of the previous dynasties. In the last to Ching's 5th year instead of the 7th. Even if part, parr. 194-23, Shih insists on the importance

we were to follow him in these points, we should of the king, at this early period of his reign, be equally unable to reconcile the note of time and on his personal undertaking of the duties given in the text with the arrangements of the of govt., at once setting about the reverence which was required to attach the people to him

chronologers. 王步至豐,一comp. self and his House, and insure the lasting favour Bk. III., p. 1. The temple of king Wăn was in of Heaven. In the last par. the duke of Shaou Fung, and we may suppose had been left standing gives expression to his personal feelings for the when Woo transferred the capital to Haou. Now king, in the peculiar situation in which he was when such an important thing as the establishing placed at Lo. The burden of the announce

ot a new pital, which should rank with Haou, ment all turns on the virtue of reverence. Let if it did not supersede it, was in progress, it was the king only feel how much depends on his proper that the king should solemnly announce reverently attending to his duties, and govern it in the temples of his father and grandfather. for the people and not for himself:-let him do That he might do so to the spirit of king Wăn, this, and all will be well. The people will love he went from Chow or Haou to Fung. 2. and support the dynasty of Chow, and Heaven To Shih the Grand-guardian, and to the duke will smile upon and sustain it.

of Chow, was assigned the duty of making all Ch. I. Pp. 1-7. PROCEEDINGS OF THE

the arrangements for carrying out the plans of KING, THE DUKE OF SHAOU, AND THE DUKE OF

king Woo about establishing a new capital at Ló. Chow, IN CONNECTION WITH THE BUILDING OF

In fact, Woo had himself taken some measures

towards the accomplishment of his views. We Lon. 1. 1# = 2#-a

are told in the EU, under the year B.c. 708 cording to this statement, the day Yih-we must have been the 21st of the second month, and, as CO2 =5), that “ he removed the nine Gaubil observes, we may, from the data here supplied, determine the year to which the An- tripods or vases to the city of Lě? (TIE nouncement of Shaou should be referred. It

PL, HAM). Those vases was, he says correctly, the year B.c. 1,098. Z might

be considered a sort of regalia of the # being the 21st day of the second month, from the Hea dynasty to Shang, and were now

empire. Originally cast by Yu, they had passed 2 must have been the 1st, and the 1st the property of the House of Chow. See a detailday of that year of Chow must have been Ping- ed account of them in the t , under the year woo (17) 4.), the 430 day of the cycle. But B.c. 605 (Ë 2 = 5). Sze-ma Ts'een that was the day of the new moon preceding the also gives, in his . Records of the Chow dynasty,' winter solstice, from which under this dynasty and probably from some of the lost Books of the they calculated the year, in s.c. 1,098, or 1,097 Shoo, a conversation between the duke of Chow (not reckoning A.D.). This result is not accord and Woo, in which the latter says, On the ant with the current chronology of king Ching's south I look to San-t‘oo (there is still the moun. Teign, nor with the date assigned to it from the tain of San-t'oo, to the south-west of tlie district

-ac

寅五洛攻以太日0則 位日沥位應保庚越經得 成甲越于殷乃庆三營。下

as

our

3 set about laying out the plans. On Kăng-suh, the third day after,

he led the people of Yin to prepare the various sites on the north of the Lo; and this work was completed on the fifth day, Këă-yin. city of Sung (15)); on the north I look, and court was removed to the east, B.C. 769. see the towns near the Yoh (this is supposed to httstP-that be the Tae-hang mountain, north of the Ho, on the border between Shan-se and Ho-nan; see

the Grand-guardian (see Bk. XX., p.5) was the

duke of Shaou is nowhere said in the Book the Tribute of Yu, Part ii., par. 1]; when I itself, but the title and the prefatory note (see look round, I see the Ho; and again I behold

page 10) are sufficient evidence on the point. the Lð and the E' (Ett 3 may be construed in the 1st tone or the 3d.

WEB TY, BY #P-'to survey! -Këang Shing 4. Ts'een adds that Woo laid out or built gives for this

, very aptly, - HT EE a settlement for Chow on the spot, and went

'the places which might be fixed for residence.' away (MEAT 1). The character does not denote so mucha These passages make it plain that Woo had dwelling,' as the site of a dwelling. 越若 fixed on Lð, at the time of his conquest of Shang, as the proper capital for his dynasty

, and had + F :- Ta‘ae takes the # * already, it is likely, some settlement at the simply a conjunction (1) place, which he enlarged. His locating at it thereupon. Attempts have been made to the vases of Yu was a sufficient declaration to translate the characters. Medhurst renders all the empire of his purpose. And that pur. them— proceeding leisurely on his journey,' pose had not been forgotten by the duke of which might be taken as a translation of GanChow. When we bring together all the passages kwõ's FA IL **, but he wrongly joins them referring to Lð, the natural conclusion is that he had been gradually enlarging the place, and

to the preceding clause. Others (see Lin Chehad even removed to it the more dangerous k‘e in loc.) take them as

- so, in obedience to among the old adherents of Yin who still con the charge, he came.' Our best plan is to follow tinued disaffected to the new rule. Up to the the view of Ts'ae. time when the action of this Book commences,

A formed from however, nothing had been done towards the and l, 'the moon come forth,' denotes the building of the palace and other structures which were the necessary appendages to it, and

third day of the month. As this was Ping-w00, the planning of all these was, I think, the special sisting only of 29 days; and Mow-shin was the

the second month must have been "small,' coninission entrusted to the duke of Shaou. In the statistical account of the empire under

5th of the 3d month. From Fung to Lo was the present dynasty, it is stated that the remains

300 le., so that if Shih commenced his journey, of the ancient city of Lð,-what was called

as the critics suppose, on the day Yih-we of the

month before, he must have travelled leisurely ht till the capital of the completed or

enough. 下宅一用龜卜宅都 established Chow,' are 30 le on the north-east of the pres. city of Loh-yang (lat. 34° 43', N.; ŹWe he used the tortoise to divine

where lon. 4°, W.); and those of the old city of Ho-nan, the capital should be built.' Wang K‘ăng-t'ang what was the 'imperial city' (E) and observes on *, that we are not to under

the eastern Capital of Chow-are õ le on the stand those terms of any actual work in building, west of it. The imperial city got the name

e but only of the determination of the dimensions of Ho-nan (YPT ) about the year B.C. 509, of the wall, the palace or court, the ancestral when the emperor King (& E) left it, and temple, &c.;-see the # 3. te took up his residence in the hit HI E$-it may be observed that in may add to these notices of Lo, that notwith these three days both Kăng-suh and Mow-shin standing the wishes of king Woo and his labours,

are included. So, in the case of the three king Ching continued to reside at Haou; it was days' in the last par. With It To not till he reign of Pring(平王) that the 于洛汭一庶殷一般之聚民

邑午二用越于于C 一生乃越牲三新洛周若 0一社翼于日邑則公翼 越鲜于日郊丁營。達朝日 七一新发牛已觀至乙

4 The day following, being the day Yih-maou, the duke of Chow came

in the morning to Lo, and thoroughly surveyed the plans for the new 5 city. On Ting-sze, the third day after, he offered two bulls as victims

in the suburbs; and on the morrow, Mow-woo, at the altar to the spirit of the land in the new city, he sacrificed a bull, a goat, all the people of Yin. This confirms what I Chow, was associated with Heaven at the sacrihave said above about the population of the in- fices to it. So far he is correct in saying that perial domain of Yin having already been in part How-tseih participated in the usual sacrifices removed to Lð, -the city commenced by king under the Chow dynasty to Heaven, and that Woo. It to describes the marking out there was special provision for a victim-bull

to him, and one to the supernal Power. This was on the ground of the foundations of the various the view, moreover, of Gan-kwo. If the text were structures from the plans of Shih. yo ip • , , ; -see · The Songs of the five Sons,' p. 3.

using two bulls,' I should adopt it. As the text

stands, however, I prefer the view given above, Fi -the five days include Kång- and which I have said was probably that of suh and Ked-yin. The latter was the 11th of Tone. Tit F#-# *, the 3d month. Pp. 4—7. The measures of the duke of Chow. #--Tit='he offered the sacrifice at the

altar to the spirit of the land.' Maou contends 4. 達觀于新邑營一達一

that this was the sacrifice to Earth, correspondall over.' The duke made a thorough ing to the previous one to Heaven. But the

text shows clearly that he is wrong, This sacrisurvey of all the Guardian's plans and arrangements for the building of the new city; and, as

fice was offered FF'inie, within we conclude from the next two parr., approved the new city,' whereas the sacrifices to Heaven of them. 5. ### F33 , and Earth were both celebrated in the suburbs, -the disputes about the sacrifice or sacrifices beyond doubt, the sacrifice to the spirit of the here intended are very warm and lengthy. Ts-ae land, with which there was always associated says that by B are intended the sacrifice or that to the spirit of the grain. The altars were

and still are within the wall of the imperial city. sacrifices to Heaven and Earth (B F Who the

Who the spirits thus sacrificed to were, is a te te). Whether he meant that the duke of question not easy to determnine. It seems to me

probable that they were not spirits distinct from Chow offered two sacrifices,--one to Heaven God, who was served in the sacrifices to Heaven and one to Earth; or only one sacrifice to and Earth. Compare the dictum of Confucius Heaven and Earth together, offering the two in “The Doctrine of the Mean,' xix., 6. Whatbulls at the same altar, does not appear. ever opinion may be held on this point, the Maou K'e-ling, supposing that the latter was human worthy associated at the sacrifice to the his view, shows that to sacrifice to Heaven and spirit of the land was Kow-lung (JB) Earth together was an uncanonical practice. But I should rather think that Ts'ae meant minister of Works to the very ancient emperor that two sacrifices were offered, one to Heaven Chuen-heuh, whose place on the list of Chinese in the southern suburb, and one to Earth in the sovereigns is immediately after IIwang-te. The northern, a single bull being used at each. These sacrifices of course would be on occasion of the human associate with the spirit of the grain marking out the spots for the respective altars.

was How-tseih. These same names appear in Maou himself thinks that only one sacrifice- the ritual of the present dynasty (see the that to lleaven-is spoken of, and that two

ti

on this paragraph by the editors of Yung-ching's , as the great ancestor of the House of Shoo is well worth the attention of the student.

[graphic]

日復君乃命庶乃日 年入出以作。殷伯。殷朝甲 手錫取庶OO侯用子 稽周幣大金應厥甸書

書周 首公乃家保殷男命公

6 and a pig. After seven days, on Këă-tsze, in the morning, from his

written specifications he gave their several charges to the people of

Yin, and to the chiefs of the States from the How, Teen, and Nan 7 tenures. When the people of Yin had thus received their orders,

they arose with vigour to do their work. 8 II. The Great-guardian then went out with the hereditary princes

of the various States to bring their offerings; and when he entered again, he gave them to the duke of Chow, saying, “With my head in my hands and bowed to the ground, I present these before the

6. 用書-I have translated 書by write | 者王無事也召公與諸侯出 ten specificiations. The duke.sina employe「取幣欲因大會顯周公,“Thie the six days after Ting-sze (that day is not

various princes, the dukes and high nobles included in the t ) in writing out the appeared together before the king. The king work which was to be done in executing the and the duke of Chow had both come to Lð. Guardian's plans, with all the necessary specifi. The text is silent about the king's coming, becations, and especially of the parties to whom cause there was nothing to be done by him at the different parts of it should be assigned. that time. The duke of Shaou and all the princes The Chiefs of countries (#316) in the tenures

went out to fetch the ceremonial offerings,

wishing to take occasion of the great assembly specified must have been the pastors of the provinces (州牧). They would give their | to glorify the duke of Chow: On 錫周公 instructions to the princes belonging to their | 至若公ne says:-召公以带入, respective jurisdictions, who again would issue

稱成王命周公曰 their people whom they land brought with them 手稽首,陳王所宜順周公 Che-kte observes on this

:="The duke of Shaou Ź$, 'The duke of Shaou then entered with completed all his plans for Lò in 7 days, from the offerings, and, proclaiming the command of Mow-shin to Këă-yin inclusive; then came the king Ching, gave them to the duke of Chow, duke of Chow, and in ten days he was ready | saying, Iventure, with my face to my hands and with all his specifications, and the work was

iny head to the ground, to set forth the things grandly in hand :-so earnest and prompt were in which the king ought to act in accordance they with their measures. All together, from with the duke of Chow."! On the last clause the day Yih-we, when king Ching came to Fung, to the day Këă-sze, there ela psed but one

he says:一,

一召公指戒成王,而以 nionth. The foundation of 10,000 years' posses

奥殷諸侯於自乃治事, Fiature is could not show such an achiers 為辭謙也,諸侯在故托焉, ment!' The observation must be accepted with The duke of Shaou's aim was to admonish due allowance for its grandiloquence.

king Ching, and that he addressed himself to Ch. II. Pp. 8—23. THE ANNOUNCEMENT. the multitudes of Yin and the princes, down to

8. The old interpreters all thought that the managers of affairs (see Ying-tă's paraking Ching was present in Lð when this an- phrase), was the language of modesty. The nouncement was made. It may be well to give princes were present, and he took the opporthe exposition of Gau-kwo. Ontbuity to address himself to the king through 入 he saye:一諸侯公卿站舅于 K‘ang.shing's view of the passage was sub

stantially the same as that of Gan-kw). That 王,王與周公俱至,文不見 the King was present, and that the design of

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