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the place of king Woo.

THE SHOO KING.

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The king and the two dukes asked the grand historian and all the other officers about the thin

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plied, “Ah! it was really thus; but the duke charged us that we should

not presume to speak about it.”

The king held the writing, and

wept, saying, “We need not now go on reverently to divine. Formerly the duke was thus earnest for the royal House, but I,

being a child, did not know it.

Now Heaven has moved its terrors to display the virtue of the duke of Chow.

That I meet him a new

man, is what the rules of propriety of our empire require.” The king then went out to the borders, when Heaven sent down

rain; and by virtue of a contrary wind, the grain all rose up.

The

two dukes gave orders to the people to take up all the large trees

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I. “The king speaks to the following effect:—‘Ho! I make a great announcement to you, the princes of the many States, and to you, the managers of my affairs.–Unpitied am I, and Heaven sends down calamities on my House, without exercising the least delay. It greatly occupies my thoughts, that I, so very young, have inherited this illimitable patrimony, with its destinies and domains. I have not displayed wisdom, and led the people to tranquillity, and how much less should I be able to reach the knowledge of the decree of Heaven

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was sufficiently important to justify the duke i

of Chow in calling it “great. We need not look
for any higher or deeper meaning in the title.
The Book is found in both the texts.
CoNTENTs; DATE; AND STYLE. The pre-
fatory note says, “When king Woo had de-
ceased; the three overseers and the wild tribes
of the Hwae rebelled. The duke of Chow
acted as prime minister to king Ching; and
| having purposed to make an end of the House
of Yin, he made “The Great Announce-
ment.”’’ This sets forth the occasion on which
the address was composed, but when we come
to look at the contents, we find very little
appropriate, according to our views, to the cir-
cumstances. The young emperor speaks of the

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responsibility lying on him to maintain the empire gained by the virtues and prowess of his father, and of the senseless movements of the House of Yin to regain its supremacy; he complains of the reluctance of many of the princes and high officers to second him in putting down the revolt; and proclaims with painful reiteration the support and assurances of success which he has received from the divining tortoise-shells. The three overseers are not mentioned, though we may find an allusion or two to them. The whole tone is feeble. I have divided, it will be seen, the 15 paragraphs in which it is now generally edited into five chapters. The date of the announcement is generally referred to the third year of Ching B.C., 1,112. But such an arrangement of events supposes the duke of Chow's residence in the east, spoken of in the last Book, to have been a voluntary exile, and that this expedition against Yin was undertaken after he returned in the manner described. But I saw reason to understand the sojourning in the east as a description of this very expedition, and that the return mentioned was on its successful termination. On this view the announcement was made in the first or second year of Ching, and the expedition was finished in the third year. On that point.—the date of the extinction of Woo-kāng and his revolt, there is an agreement. The style of the Book is about as difficult as that of ‘the Pwan-käng. ‘We may doubt," says Wang Gan-shih, “whether parts have not been lost, and other parts have not fallen out of their proper place. Our plan is to let alone what we cannot understand, and to explain what we find ourselves able to do.’ ‘It is difficult,’ says Choo He, “to point the Book. The sentences are very long, and students generally try to break them up into shorter ones, which makes the interpretation more difficult still.’ Ch. I. Pp. 1, 2. NotwitHSTANDING IIIs YoUTH AND INCOMPETENCIES, THE KING FEELS Boun D, BY HIS DUTY TO His FATHERS AND TO HEAvEN, To Do HIs UTMost To PUT Down. The REVOLT Which WAS THREATENING THE RECENT

LY ACQUIRED EMPIRE. 1. +E # E|,— these are the words of the duke of Chow, spoken by him as regent of the empire, and in the name of the young king. We are not to suppose indeed that Ching had anything to do with the announcement. Doubting the duke's loyalty, he would not have sent him to attack his other uncles; but the duke acted as the great duties of his position required him to do, and would not allow the safety of the dynasty to be perilled by weak scruples. At the same time it was right that his address should appear as in the name of the king. There was no other king

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\ 2)" £–without th little delay. Blow was following on blow in quick succession. Gan-kwó put a stop at AJ >, and carried if: to the next sentence. Of this construction I shall speak on the next clause. K'ang-shing pointed as in the text and

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prolonged.’ #if: may certainly be thus taken

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is more naturally construed as I have done in the translation, following Ts'ae and other

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revolt in Yin.

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‘Yes, I who am but a little child am in the position of one who has to cross a deep water;—it must be mine to go and seek how to

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I must diffuse the elegant institutions of my predeces

sor, and augment the appointment which he received from Heaven;

—so shall I be not forgetful of his

great work. Nor shall I dare to

restrain the majesty of Heaven seen in the inflictions it sends down.

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