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我公弗昔王祖王 天 國之及公執信乃

家德勤書唸問 邦 今勞以公諸 人反亦月 天王命史 凡風 風宜小動家日我與

禾之子威惟其 大木則以予敢執 熟。所盡王新彰冲穆言事。

17 the place of king Woo. The king and the two dukes asked the

grand historian and all the other officers about the thing. They re

plied, “Ah! it was really thus; but the duke charged us that we should 18 not presume to speak about it.” The king held the writing, and

wept, saying, "We need not now go on reverently to divine. Formerly the duke was thus earnest for the royal House, but I, being a child, did not know it. Now Heaven has moved its terrors to display the virtue of the duke of Chow. That I meet him a new

man, is what the rules of propriety of our empire require." 19 The king then went out to the borders, when Heaven sent down

rain ; and by virtue of a contrary wind, the grain all rose up. The two dukes gave orders to the people to take up all the large trees which had fallen, and replace them. The year then turned out

very fruitful.

were consulted on great emergencies of the State.

:-see on The Pwan17. Hil # #-these were all kang,' Pt. ii., p. 2. Here king Ching was really

予沖人, the officers who had assisted the duke when he

a youth, , 惟联小子其新逆 made his prayer, &c. 信償云云,


read 親 Ying-tă says:


instead of 新 is a sound expressive of dissatisfaction of mind.

so that the meaning is—That Gan-kwò calls it IR They were vexed

I go out and meet him in person,' &c. This

certainly gives a good meaning; and Ts'ae and at being thus obliged to tell what the duke had Këang Shing both adopt it. Gan-kwõ and charged them to keep secret. Keang Shing K'ang-shing, however, both understand W reads, which he explains in a similar way. in the translation. The language of the latter

18. 其穆卜-今觀公| 18:一新迎,政先時之心更自 書可知天變之所由我君新以周公Tis is rather harsh,

but it is more difficult to get a tolerable mean. 臣不必更穆下矣

;- see the

ing out of many other passages of the Shoo.


P. 19. The duke is received back, and Ileaven | sacrifice to Heaven was offered, and thought signifies its approbation. Ill B --it that the going forth was to offer a sacrifice of is most natural to understand this going forth thanksgiving to Heaven for his deliverance to the suburbs with reference to the king's from the unjust suspicions which he had harpurpose indicatel in the 联小子其新boared.

Ts'ae says that after reading this paragraph of the last par. Gan-kwo, however, takes it is impossible to doubt the doctrine of · veriof the place, outside the city, where the great fications,' laid down in the ‘Plan!'

[Inny here in the vacant space of this pare 天,則後面能不能事鬼神 introduce Wang Pilis chapter on the last 2

味矣,如 in his Doubts about the Shoo. His views are questionable, but the student will be glad to have a complete specimen of the style and man. ner of his Work.一此書敘事體也,與 武成同武成是敘伐商

皆 事始末此篇是東征前後

啟論而參以龜 事,歷六七年始末

是證三下之果 中有筆力焉納册啟書,此

小子新命于三王 金膝之首尾也,其敘事

以身 ·代 可不詳,其敘流言居東

命也,惟永 是圖者,我 十餘字,簡潔詳明,於曲但為考終之計盐所 折抑揚 事情隱

王必不忘於一人: 後來 話等 事,盡含 蓄於


而公不 此,武成先列四 四誓而總敘

心, 而 武事 之終,金 敘東征

在公則當 侯命 而後: 諸法當然


只是 也,其 小 義諸家有

登讀 周公以 未


征誌 事,固 意責字,

之責,是黃恩而姑 日公避 我於天, 願東非知公者,二穆下只 代中間

中間無名 意,若 三義於敬字為近,初不悟 王有任保護 之責于 于




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嗣洪于事爾王國 日造無惟我非多若大 其哲疆我家那日

有迪大幼不天越 能民歷沖少降爾

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AL 1 I. “The king speaks to the following effect :- Ho! I make a

great announcement to you, the princes of the many States, and to you, the managers of my affairs.—Unpitied am I, and Heaven sends down calamities on my House, without exercising the least delay. It greatly occupies my thoughts, that I, so very young. have indierited this illimitable patrimony, with its destinies and domains. I have not displayed wisdomn, and led the people to tranquillity, and how much less should I be able to reach the knowledge of the decree of Heaven!

The pre

THE NAME OF THE Book.一大誌: The

of Chow in calling it 'great.' We need not look

for any higher or deeper meaning in the title. Great Announcement,' At the cominencement The Book is found in both the texts. of the first paragraph, these two characters, CoSTENTS; DATE; AND STYLE. 大話一

-occur, and they are thence taken and fatory note says, When king Woo haddemade the name of the Book. Gan-kw), indeed, ceased; the three overseers and the wild tribes says that the Book set forth great doctrines of the Hwae rebelled. The duke of Chow for the information of the empire, and thence having purposed to make an end of the House

acted as prime minister to king Ching; and it received its name (kiti til of Yin, he made "The Great Announce

This sets forth the occasion on which Til Z. But we look in vain the address was composed, but when we come for great doctrines emergency which called the announcement forth appropriate, according to our views, to the cirwas sufficiently important to justify the duke cumstances. The young einperor speaks of the




responsibility lying on him to maintain the Keang-shing, Ming-shing, and other opponents empire gained by the virtues and prowess of his of the false K'ung,' adopt this view, and the father, and of the senseless movements of the ingenuity with which they argue for it is amusHouse of Yin to regain its supremacy; he com ing; but it is too absurd to justify our entering plains of the reluctance of many of the princes into an examination of their arguments. Comp. and high officers to second him in putting down the I# in the Pwan-kång, Pt. i., 16; tion the support and assurances of success which and often in several of the Books of Chow that he has received from the divining tortoise-shells. follow. 猷大諾爾多邦,一猷 The three overseers are not mentioned, though we may find an allusion or two to them. The appears to have come into use, under tře Chow whole tone is feeble. I have divided, it will be dynasty, as an exclamation, like the of the seen, the 15 paragraphs in which it is now •Canon of Yaou. I do not see what other generally edited into five chapters.

meaning can be given to it here, or in the The date of the announcement is generally next Bk., p. 1; et al. Here Ma Yung and others referred to the third year of Ching B.c., 1,111, in the Han dynasty read it after -t the duke of Chow's residence in the cast, spoken tok , Z Z-and explained it by of in the last Book, to have been a voluntary exile, and that this expedition against Yin was 1. Gan-kwð even attempted to give it the undertaken after he returned in the manner

same meaning in its place at the beginning of described. But I saw reason to understand the sojourning in the east as a description of this the sentence -周公稱王命,順大 was on its successful termination. Onthis view it T Ž Z But this is the announcement was made in the first or exceedingly harsh and unnatural. Lin Che-k'e second year of Ching, and the expedition was was the first, so far as I have ascertained, who finished in the third year. On that point.--the explained the term as an exclamation. It date of the extinction of Woo-kăng and his is a pity that this meaning of it does not revolt, there is an agreement.

appear in the dictionary. 爾多 The style of the Book is about as difficult as that of the Pwan-king.' We may doubt,' 邦。爾在外多那之諸侯 says Wang Gan-shih, "whether parts have not

越爾御事, the 'Great been lost, and other parts have not fallen out of their proper place. Our plan is to let alone Speech,' Pt. i., p. 2. o 17,- (read what we cannot understand, and to explain what we find ourselves able to do. It is difficult, teaou) — ")fL “to pity,' as in the She King, Pt. says Choo He, 'to point the Book. The senten

III., Bk. III., Ode x., st. 5. In the ‘Pwan-kang,' ces are very long, and students generally try Pt. iii., 7, it was read teih, with the meaning of to break them up into shorter ones, which makes the interpretation more difficult still.'

'to come to,' i.e., to reach the mark of Ch. I. Pp. 1, 2. NOTWITHSTANDING IIS

goodness; and so Gan-kwð took it, and Keang YOUTH AND INCOMPETENCIES, THE KING FEELS

Shing takes it, but with different relations to BOUND, BY HIS DUTY TO HIS FATHERS AND TO the rest of the sentence ;--see the lit Fii and HEAVEN, TO DO HIS UTMOST TO PUT DOWN THE REVOLT WHICH WAS TIIREATENING THE RECENT the 尚書集註音疏, Tsine expands LY ACQUIRED EMPIRE. 1. I&E,- the phrase as in the translation :

:-17 為 these are the words of the duke of Chow, spoken

#bff 天降割于我家 by him as regent of the empire, and in the name of the young king. We are not to suppose in Hi Ti E,

--injuries,' “calamideed that Ching had anything to do with the announcement. Doubting the duke's loyalty, ties.' Heaven sends down calamities on my he would not have sent him to attack his House,'--this has reference especially to the other uncles; but the duke acted as the great early death of king Woo; and we may include duties of his position required him to do, and also the present troubles occasioned by the would not allow the safety of the dynasty to be revolt in Yin. Hi I RIE.—'without a perilled by weak scruples. At the same time it little delay.' Blow was following on blow in was right that his address should appear as in quick succession. Gan-kwò put a stop at the name of the king. There was no other king, and carried RIF to the next sentence. Of but Ching, and no other is intended by I throughout the Book. K‘ang-shing, however, clause. Kang-shing pointed as in the text and

this construction I shall speak on the next says that by E we should understand the interpreted Hi Lo BLE

as 'not few and duke himself. His words are: -EM

prolonged.' BLE may certainly be thus taken 也,周公居命大事,則權

長; but the whole phrase 不小延 ' I 'The king is the duke of Chow. He is more naturally construed as I have done was regent of the empire, and in giving charge in the translation, following Ts-ae and other about such great affairs, in the exigency of the Sung critics. -, 'I greatly circumstances, he called himself the king.', think.' Gan-kvo, I have just said, began this



于予不人數求水子已 天不忘受資联予若予天 隆敢大命救收惟涉惟命。 威閉功兹前濟往洲小心 O

fined as a

see the

2 Yes, I who am but a little child am in the position of one who

has to cross a deep water;-it must be mine to go and seek how to cross over. I must diffuse the elegant institutions of my predecessor, and augment the appointment which he received from Heaven ; -so shall I be not forgetful of his great work. Nor shall I dare to restrain the majesty of Heaven seen in the inflictions it sends down. clause with BLE, and his comment on 延惟 rest of the announcement. Perhaps a glimpse

of light is afforded by Kin Le-ts'ëang, who 我幼沖人-因害延大惟 says-此言成王以幼沖嗣位, 累我幼童人,成王言其不流言展轉而事變如此,未

可不昧之意,The aluaties are so pro- 能上測天意如何以起下 tracted and great that they involve me who am so young ; —the king's meaning is that there *# Ź This speaks was nothing for him but to cut off the criminals.' of how king Ching, inberiting the throne at so This is very far-fetched, and must be rejected early an age, with the baseless rumours going MO) ME FAT - is de about

, and such changes of events occurring fate,' destiny. Woo Ch'ing of Heaven, in order to introduce what is said says:- #Ź Ale -'do difficulties, and the intimations afforded by divimains.' Ts'ae says-hi HR, the five do- nation ;' 集說 2.已is used, , mains;' but they were more than five under

acc. to Ts'ae, as a continuative particle, indicatthe Chow dynasty. Nearly all the critics define ing that though the speaker had come to a pause,

yet he must go on expressing his sentiments 服事, and then expand t into something (已,承上語辭已而有不能 like 服王事;but Israels meaning is much | 已之意), Our Yes' coresponds to it. simpler. 弗造哲,迪民康,一

THE RE,- this,' says Ganthis Gan-kw has-不能為造智道| kwa, exprese the kings awe'言祇懼)

El, 'I cannot practise the ways of He might have said-awe and perplexity. The wisdom to repose the people.' Këang Shing has-弗遭逢明哲之人以置資數前人受命,一the armer lause

expresses the young king's apprehensive perF*, 'I have not met with (=found), in- plexity ; this seems to express what under all telligent men to lead the people to repose.' circumstances he felt it incumbent upon him to

do. The language however, is difficult to conBetter than eitlier, Woo Ch'ing read it with

strue and interpret. Lin Che-k'e says:-'Ganan aspirate, ="to go to,' 'to arrive at;' and kwò read fun, as in the “Pwan-kăng,” Pt. Rays:一

- We A 19 # VR iii., 7, and with the same signif. of great, and A *, 'I have not attained to wisdom, 80 as

gave the meaning— I will spread and practise

great principles, so spreading and displaying to conduct the people to tranquillity.' So I take the appointment received by Wån and Woo.' the words, 日,云云, I take 格| But the text only says 數資 and to make liere with Gan-kyo as 至‘to reach to'I “I will display great principles' is wide

of the mark and forced. Soo and Lin Tszedo not know what the young king, or rather the duke of Chow, had in view by uit 'the hwuy (HA F uff) read the character pe, with decree or appointment of Heaven, nor can I the meaning of 'to adorn' (l; as in the discern the bearing of the whole clause on the Announcement of Tang,'. p. ), Soo then in

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