תמונות בעמוד

下我歸許我 民子數
三乃侯 我即天孫佑
龜屏 命永之 于

隆 于有降 方 習與库 以元依寶貝地用 吉。不壁龜歸。命鳴四能

than the

The people of the four quarters stand in reverent awe of him. Oh! do not let that precious Heaven-conferred appointment fall

to the ground, and all our former kings will also have a perpetual 8 reliance and resort. I will now seek for your orders from the great

tortoise. If you grant what I request, I will take these symbols and this mace, and return and wait for the issue. If you do not grant

it, I will put them by." 9 The duke then divined with the three tortoises, and all were

favourable. He took a key, opened and looked at the oracular received the decree in the imperial hall,' which

employed by the princes, is a great weakening of the duke's argument,

歸 and without the sanction of any critic. 侯爾命,一will return and wait for your 19t ni h-the critics generally orders, which would be seen in the recovery of connect this with the preceding clause, and king Woo, and the duke's death. Ma says: extend the force of the 用能 to it it 爾命武王當愈我當死 seems rather to be a description of the success 屏壁與一屏(2d tone)=or of Woo's govt., -exaggerated, indeed, but justifiable in the circumstances, #Zee The meaning is, that he would put those

instruments of worship aside ;-the dynasty 寶命一天所降之寶命 would fall, and the House of Chow would have

no more imperial sacrifices to offer. the translation, 我先王,云云一

Pp. 9, 10. The divination is favourable, and our former kings' are all the princes of the the duke deposits his prayer in the coffer. 9, House of Chow, from Shun's minister of Agrian t-He divined with the three have a perpetual reliance and resort' is to the tortoises' I suppose that the divination took effect that the sacrifices to them would ever be place before the altars, and that a different shell

was used to ascertain the mind of each king. P. 8. The duke proposes to divine for the an Choo He says:一或日三王前各swer of the kings, and tells them what will be the consequence of their refusing his request.

4 ŽLin Che-k'e, however, says:我即命今我就受三王之以龜之三兆下之, He divined

according to the three prognostics given by the 'I will now go at once and receive the

tortoise.' This is in accordance with the lancommand—the decision of you three kings. guage of the Chow Le, Bk. XXIV., p. 1, #l 元龜 n 大龜, in the Tribute of Yu,' Pt. i., 52. The shells of the tortoise em

掌三兆之法一日玉兆二 ployed for imperial divinations were larger 日兆三日原兆, which Biot

-as in


,see on

中册人。惟子 , 王是啟
王于 0 侯 新其
翼金 公 能終命
日、騰歸 是于害
乃之 乃

日乃 廣納 瑟王小體


是吉o公 似箭見書乃



10 responses which also were favourable. He said, “According to the

form of the prognostic, the king will take no injury. I, who am but a child, have got his appointment renewed by the three kings,

by whom a long futurity has been consulted for. I have to wait 11 the issue. They can provide for our one man.” Having said this,

he returned, and placed the tablets in the metal-bound coffer; and next day the king got better. translates :

-Grand Augure. Il est préposé not die, but also that he would get better withaux trois methodes pour l'observation des out himself being taken as a substitute. The fissures sur l'ecaille de la tortue. La première words do not convey that impression to my est appelée fissure de jade ; la seconde, tissure mind. In the Daily Explanation,' they are de poterie; la troisième, fissure de plaine.' referred to the three kings as in the translation.

·習吉一習一重, 襲; see the 一我小子新受命于三王,惟 (Great Speech, Pt. in 5. 啟驚見書-以久後子孫爲計而許我

we are to understand 占書: writen 以保佑元子孫矣兹做 oracles. The par. of the Chow Le

, following T, WE AF-1 that quoted above, is- # the letto of par

. 8, the only differ 皆百有二十,其項皆千有

ence being that the words here are those of 二 "The forms of the regular prognostica- soliloquy, and not addressed to the kings. The tions were in all 120, the explanations of which l is king Woo. The duke would seem amounted to 1,200. Those explanations, no | to be resigning himself to the thought of his doubt, consisting of a few oracular lines; were

own death. He must be taken, but he can the of the text. They were kept by them- confidently leave the king and the dynasty in selyes, and consulted on occasion, according to the care of the three kings. certain rules which have not come down. The duke of Chow at this time had recourse to them.

11. 金滕之虞,the metal-bound The meaning of in this place is very uncer

coffer.' Ts'ae says that it was this coffer which

contained the oracles of divination, the same tain. Properly speaking, it denotes a kind of which is alluded to in p. 9. It may have been flute, Here it seems to denote a sort of key with

50; but I should rather suppose it to have been which the apartment or chest, or whatever it different, ma special chest in which important might be, in which those oracles were kept, was archives of the dynasty, to be referred to on opened. K'ang-shing, Ma Yung, and Wang great emergencies, were kept. The duke gave Suh define it nearly in the same way, as 開藏

orders to all whose services he had employed

in the ceremony to say nothing about it (see p. 之管:蘋卜兆書管; and 開籤 17), but it was right that the record of the

prayer should be preserved in this repository. 占兆書管 10. 體一兆之體 He therefore placed it there, not thinking that 'the form of the prognostic,' appearing on the it would be-hoping that it would not be shell of the tortoise.

-brought to light in his time, 惟永終是圖

[The prayer of the duke of Chow is addressed -Woo Ch'ing understands this to be spoken by to the three kings, and I have said above, that the duke of himself, so that he not only under it is addressed to them in the character of medistood from the divination that the king would ators or intercessors with Heaven or God.

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EL 12 II. Afterwarıls, upon the death of king Woo, the duke's elder bro

ther, he of Kwan, and his younger brothers, spread a baseless rumour through the kingdom, saying, “The duke will do no good to the The analogy of the circle of religious notions PRAYER IN THE COFFER IS DISCOVERED, AND among the Chinese obliges us to adopt this conclusion, and, in par. 7, we have an express TEARS THE INJUSTICE OF HIS THOUGHTS, AND reference to the supreme disposing of God in RECEIVES THE DUKE BACK, WHILE HEAVEN AChuman affairs. Still it must be allowed that the doctrine of the former kings being only 12. The manner in which the duke of Chow was intercessors is not indicated in the text so brought into suspicion. The last par. closes with clearly as it might have been. In illustration the statement that the king suddenly recovered of this I shall quote the words of Ts'aou Heð- the day after the duke's prayer. This opens with tseuen (; Ming dyn). He says : Woo died B.c., 1,115, and was succeeded by

a reference to his death. Five years have elapsed, -The earlier scholars were led, by the words _" I have received a new appointment for him

his son Sung (), whose reign dates from from the three kings," to doubt whether the B.c. 1,114, and who is known in history by duke's language (in p. 6)—" I have many abili; the title of Ching 17€), the Completer.' ties and arts which fit me to serve spiritual beings,” really referred to Heaven. They rather Ching was only 13 years old, and the duke of thought it did not; but we must not thus Chow acted as regent of the empire. It was pertinaciously insist upon particular expres- natural he should do so, for he was the ablest sions. Anciently, when sovereigns sacrificed of all the sons of Wăn, and had been devotedly to Heaven and Earth, they associated their attached to his brother Woo, whose chief adviser ancestors as assessors and sharers at the cere

he had been, and was without the shadow of mony; when they prayed for anything to disloyal feeling. The accession of dignity and Heaven and Earth, they depended on the effica- | influence which he now received, however, moved cious spirituality of their ancestors to present his elder brother Sëen, and some of his other and second their request.

Heaven was the brothers to envy, and they had come to be most honourable, and they did not dare to engaged in a treasonable conspiracy against the approach it abruptly; their ancestors were the throne. We have seen how Woo, after the nearest to them, and they could, through the death of the tyrant Show, pardoned his son, kindness between them, make their thoughts generally known by the name of Woo-kăng known to them. There is no reason why we (TEM)

, and continued him in Yin to mainshould not say that the words, “I have received a new appointment from the three tain the sacrifices to the kings of his line. To kings," are equivalent to "I have received a new

guard against the very probable contingency

of his rebellion, however, he placed three of his appointment for him from Heaven”

own brothers in the State along with him, with DE A FEIN E the title of 'Inspectors' or 'Overseers’ E

能多材多藝以服事鬼神監) who should overave both him and the old #stis ott tis "

ministers of Show. Those overseers were Sëen,

known as Kwan Shuh, older than the duke of nt# Chow; Too (DE), known as Ts'ae Shuh Cinta 祖考西 . FIFF), immediately younger than the duke ; and ht, 藉元 之處,以為| Chroo(處), known as Hoh Shuh (霍叔), the

eighth of Wan's sons. Perhaps Sëen thought

that on the death of Woo the regency, if not 而祖宗至親,可以情告 the throne, should have devolved upon himself.

Mencius ascribes the appointment of him as over

王,新 seer of Yin to the duke of Chow (see Men., II., F FFT

Pt. II., ix.), as, no doubt, it was made by Woo

on his advice. This may have exasperated him Ch. II. Pp. 12-19. AFTER THE DEATH OF the wore against Tan who had thus shelred him, KING Woo THE DUKE OF CHOW FALLS UNDER he would think, away from the court. Howerer

it was induced, soon after the death of Woo, TWO YEARS Pass BY, AND THEN HEAVEN INTER those three brothers entered into a conspiracy POSES TO BRING HIS INNOCENCE TO LIGHT; THE with Woo-kăng to throw off the yoke of the


0人年居o 我無弗日告


13 king's young son.' Upon this the duke of Chow represented to the

two dukes, saying, “If I do not take the law to these men, I shall

not be able to make my report to our former kings. 14 He resided accordingly in the east for two years, when the

new dynasty, and as a preliminary step, they The duke of Chow, on being aware of the endeavoured, in the manner indicated in the insinuations circulated against him, resolved to text, to stir up division between the regent and meet them with promptitude. He owed a duty his nephew.

to the former kings and to the dynasty, and FER-Kwan was the name of a city and whatever the young king might think, he would

act at once against the rebellious and the disterritory,—the pres. sub. dep. of Ch‘ing (1 loyal.

14. Justice done on the criminals. The different "N), in the dep. of K'ae-fung, Ho-nan. It views that are taken of the last paragraph formed the appanage of Sëen, the third of Wăn's necessarily affect the interpretation of this. sons. I suppose that all was originally merely the east, operating against Woo-kang and the

Acc. to Gan-kwo, the duke spent two years in indicative of Sëen's place in the line of his false brothers, and at the end of that time he brothers (see on Con. Ana., XVIII., xi.); but it had got them into his hands, and dealt with

them according to his views of their several has come to be joined with so that Kwănshuh is now in effect simply a historical name.

guilt. Ying-tă says:-E (this has already 245,- the younger brothers' were Too and been explained by the Ź) = Ch‘oo, as bas been detailed above. 流言,罪人於此皆得謂獲三叔 —-set words flowing,' = spread a baseless Fu- BU# K'ang-shing on the other PFU TAF-'will not be

hand say:一居東者,出處東國 advantageous to the child. By i F. of

待罪以須君之察已, He recourse, the young emperor is meant. 13.

sided in the east " means that he left the court The resolution of the duke. # Ź go and dwelt in an eastern State, allowing the ever since the Han dynasty the meaning of charge of guilt till the king should have examinpo here has been debated. Gan-kwó, reading admit of this interpretation, but what he says

ed into it. The language so far will certainly the term peih, according to its proper enuncia on the next clause is too ridiculous. It is :tion, defined it by and explained the text 4 Že til sin E by 我不以法法权,則我「攝者,周公出奔今二年 無以成周道,告我先王,一 盡為成王所得謂之罪人,史 in the translation. Kang-shing, on the other hit It, 'The criminals are the hand read has and with the meaning of partizans of the duke of Chow and his acquainthat term, so that the text='If I do not get out tances while he held the regency. When he of the way, -leave my dignities, and retire from withdrew from the court, they fled; but now in court,-I shall not be able,' &c., &c. The editors the two years they were all apprehended by of Yung-ching's Shoo do not give a decided king Ching. The historian calls them criminals, opinion on either side. Ts-ae has followed writing from the king's point of view. Even K'ang-shing, but his master Choo He wavered | Keang Shing does not venture to adopt this between the two views, approving now the one, interpretation, but supposes the meaning to be and now the other. Maou K'e-ling has a long that the duke, while in the east, came to know note on the subject, in his To who the criminals were that had slandered him. Bk. III., recanting his early opinion in favour I have said that the phrase Ewill itself of K‘ang-shing's view, and giving eight reasons admit of the interpretation put on it by K'angfor adopting in preference that of Gan-kwo. shing; but Maou Ke-ling has shown, that if Some of them are sufficiently forcible. I have we do not understand it as Gan-kw does, of the no hesitation in differing on this point from the duke’s operating in the east against his rebelgenerally approved interpretation sanctioned lious brothers, there is no other place in that by Ts'ae.

direction froni the court, to which his sojourn

, -as


殷王木 電大亦王後 武公金與斯以熟未名公

騰大拔風風未敢之乃 自之夫邦不穩請日為 說以書盡人盡天公瞧詩

為乃大偃大O骗以 公功得以恐大雷秋王胎

15 criminals were got and brought to justice. Afterwards he made a

poem to present to the king, and called it “The Owl.” The king on

Înis part did not dare to blame the duke. 16 In the autumn, when the grain was abundant and ripe, but before

it was reaped, Heaven sent a great storm of thunder and lightning, along with wind, by which the grain was all beaten down, and great trees torn

up. The people were greatly terrified; and the king and great officers, all in their caps of state, proceeded to open the metalbound coffer, and examine the writings, when they found the words of the duke of Chow when he took on himself the business of taking ing for so long a time can be assigned with any had reference, would not find the difficulty in degree of probability. 15. The duke sends understanding it which we do. 王亦 a poem to the king to clear himself, but is only partially successful. The poem here referred to that is now superseded by

. ., beging:一

誰; ; it means 'to reprove,' 'to blaine.' The Dowl, Dowl,

clause is understood to intimate that though You have taken my young ones:

the king now partially understood the motives Do not also destroy my nest.

of the duke's conduct, and could not blame him I loved them; I laboured for them;

for the way in which he had dealt with his I nourished them.—How am I to be pitied.' other uncles, he still looked on himn with some The received interpretation of it is that it was

degree of suspicion.

Pp. 16–18. Heaven interposes to bring the composed by the duke after he had crushed the

duke's innocence to light by meuns of the prayer in insurrectionary movements in Yin, and put to death Woo-kăng and Kwan-shuh. By the

the metal-bound coffer. 16. 秋

-we may ‘owl' is intended Woo-king; and by the suppose this was the autumn of the the third

nest,' the dynasty of Chow. The writer meant that king Ching should understand by it the year of Ching,—B.c. 1,112. 雷電以 devotion which he felt to the imperial House, E,-Lin Che-k'e brings out the y el by been obliged to execute upon his brother occa- expanding :- #BT HER it, in accordance with his interpretation of Ź JE, as in the translation. The

#19 in the last par., and supposed paraphrase of the Daily Explanation' is similar. that the duke intended by it to expostulate 王與至之書,一the with the king on the persecution of his friends skin cap,' worn in court at audiences. It is which he had instituted. But we cannot believe generally said that the king was going to di. that he would have thus addressed the king as vine that he might discover the reason of the an Owl.' There is nothing in the poem or unusual storm, and therefore opened the coffer ode, which readily suggests the interpretation which contained the oracles of divination. But to be put upon it; but there is perhaps something we saw, on p. 11, that it is not certain those in what Choo He says, that readers at the time, oracles were kept in that coffer. Possibly it all-excited by the circumstances to which it was a repository of important archives, which

was a

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