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Choo He was asked whether the term were not
in great matters ;-—as when, in raising a mound of nine fathoms the 10 work is unfinished for want of one basket of earth. If you really
follow this course, the people will preserve their possessions, and the throne will descend from generation to generation.
7 4 4171,-FA is used here E-E 'the living people,” is merely much with the same meaning as in the Con.
an equivalent of # Ę. The phrase is found Ana. XV., xxi, 君子矜而不爭
also in the 孝經 For 保厥居 used in the same way in the two passages, and
Medhurst has well—may protect their hearths.' replied, “Much about it. The idea is that of 惟乃世王一王業可, pitiful consideration, and firm conservation.'
( the imperial inheritance may be perpetuated.' HOWE 19 4 ### 1 append Lin Che-kie's observations on this :-
為山云云,se the Con, Ann, 太保以是訓王,厥後凡 IX, Xvid -八尺, eight cubits. I四夷所獻,中國所受,一如 call it a fathome as being the nearest approxi- 太保之訓觀肅慎氏格 tions of measures. The paraphrase in the Ź XI, PTY LT 《Daily Explanation 'js:一譬如為山者,茲者也·周之子孫下 積累工夫,已至九例,所少十下年七百,信乎其 王 一餐之土,乃心生玩,不也,夫却一怒之獻,亦細事 肯加益九例之功到底虧耳, 王之兆見於此,則 缺山豈可得而成也哉 知 大君之所以新天 10. 允迪兹,comp. 允迪厥德,命以為社稷無疆之休者, Pt., L, Bk. II, p, 1. 生民保厥「蓋不在大也。
Flietot ill. 先可周
王豫王克 王以公穆我有商 0 戚日下其
I. Two years after the conquest of the Shang dynasty, the king 2 fell ill, and was quite disconsolate. The two dukes said, “Let us 3 reverently consult the tortoise concerning the king"; but the duke of Chow said, “You may not so distress our former kings.'
The Name of the Book-, The anah tebe interests of his family is brought to Metal bound.' pois defined by tt, to tie light. The boy monarch weeps because of the or shut up,'éto seal or fasten.' A certain chest unjust suspicions he had harboured, and wel
comes the duke back to court, amid unmistakeor coffer, which was fastened with bands of able demonstrations of the approval of Heaven, metal, plays an important part among the in The whole narrative is a very pleasing episode cidents of the Book. It is called, p. 11, & intihe history of the times, and is more inter
Ź i'; and from this the name is taken. portions of the Shoo. It divides itself naturally The Book is found in both the texts.
into two chapters :-the first, parr. 1-11, endContents. King Woo is very ill, and his and the second, detailing how it was brought
ing with the depositing the prayer in the coffer; death seems imminerit. His brother, the duke
to light, and the duke cleared by means of it of Chow, apprehensive of the disasters which from the suspicions which had been cherished such an event would occasion to their infant
of him. dynasty, conceives the islea of dying in his
Cu. I. Pp. 1-11. THE PRAYER OF stead, and prays to the three kings,' their
DUKE OF CHOW ; ITS OCCASION ; HIS SUBSEQUENT immediate progenitors, that he might be taken
DIVINATION, AND DEPOSITING THE PRAYER IN and king Woo left. Having done so, and divined
1. The illness of king Woo. that he was heard, he deposits the prayer in the metal-bound coffier, where important ar: ,—the current chronology chives were kept. The king gets well, and refers this to the 14th year of king Woo, the the duke is also spared; but five years after, year after the death of Show, B.c. 1,120. Woo really dies, and is succecded by his son, a Kang-sbing thought that the year of the conboy only thirteen years old. Rumours are quest of Shang should not be included in the spread abroad that the duke has designs upon two years, and the critics of the present dynasty the throne, and he withdraws for a time from generally concur with him. Ming-shing says the court. At length in the third yeır of the that if the historian had meant to say that the young king, Heaven interposes. He has occasion year was that succeeding the change of dynasties, to open the metal-bound coffer, and the prayer as Gan-kvó, Szc-ma Ts'een, and Wang Suli
告秉焉周方壇同為以公 Helt, 植公比于三為乃 王乃壁立面南為壇功自
4 He then took the business on himself, and made three altars of
earth, on the same cleared space; and having made another altar on the south, facing the north, he there took his own position. The convex symbols were put on their altars and he himself held his mace, while he addressed the kings T'ae, Ke, and Wăn. think, he would have used and not PEL
y not have taken root. He was equally mighty
in words and in deeds,-a man of counsel and and we should have real 惟克商二 of action. Confucius regarded his memory
with reverence, and spoke of it as an evidence 5. I cannot undertake to settle this trivial of his own failing powers and disappointed point. otti (so in Sze-ma Ts'een. lopes, that the duke of Chow no longer appeared Këang Shing, after the mit * gives * king Wăn, by his queen Tae-sze. The eldest 愈)=不悦豫,
was Pih-yih-k‘aou (TH); the second was not happy. We may suppose that he was distressed, thinking was king Woo; and the third was Sëen (lt), of the troubles that might arise on his death. The other reading-Ti , did not There were six other younger brothers, but of
the Kwan Shuh (tale), mentioned in p. 12. get well,' would give a simpler meaning. all Wăn's sons, only king Woo and the duke of 2. Proposal of the two dukes to divine respecting Chow were representatives of their father's the issue of the king's illness. The =
virtue and wisdom. Chow was the name of the
city where king T'ae fixed the central seat of * two dukes,' are understood to be # and his House ;-see page 281, on the name of this
part of the Shoo. It became the appanage of 2. The latter is the duke of Shaou
Wan’s 4th son, Tan (D), and hence, he is spoken of on p. 1 of the last Book. T'ae-kung, -see on Mencius, IV., Pt. I., xiii. He played known as the 'duke of Chow.' 戚一蔓 invernom paynasty, as counsellor to Wan and that the best devices proposed to have a comentan Woo, and was invested by Woo with the prin service of divination in the ancestral temple of cipality of Ts'e, which his descendants held
the imperial House, and the duke of Chow negafor nearly 640 years. He is the fol in the tives their proposal on the ground that there apocryphal edition of the Great Speech.'
was no necessity for troubling the spirits of the
departed kinys by so much ado merely to divine - Ts'een has ) is defined by the issue of the king's illness. He had himself Gan-kwó, after the red FÉ, by the reve
deterinined what he would do. K'ang-shing
says that he negatived their proposal, because rently. Ts'ae gives its meaning -- TTT 19:e knew that the king would not die at this
time. This view is grounded in a passage in HI, with entire sincerity and in common, the Bk. I, flt F, Pt. i., p. 2., of the saying that on great emergencies all the officers, Le Ke, where king Wăn is made to interpret a great and small, united in the ceremony of dream of his son so as to assure him of a certain divination, so that it is equivalent to number of years. But there is much in that
Book which we cannot receive. If the duke # , according to the view of an older knew that his brother would recover, the prayer interpreter whom he cites. This interpretation which follow's, and his offer to die in his room, would give more emphasis to the g£ in the lose all their meaning and value.
P. 4. The duke's preparations for his prayer. next par., but I do not see that we can insist on extending the meaning of the term beyond 公乃自以為功一功事 the ik of Gan-kwo. 3. The duke of Chow
business or duty. Gan-kwó paraphrases :declines the proposal. 11, this is the first
周公乃自以請命為已事, time that we meet in the Shoo with this famous
三壇同埋一築土日壇除 name, though we shall find him hereafter playing a most important part. But for him,
E tip, the rearing up of earth is called indeed, the dynasty of Chow would probably ; the clearing away of the ground is called
之有三疾溝元日乃王 責王若厲孫惟册季 于子是爾虐某爾祝史文
5 The grand historian by his order wrote on tablets his prayer to
the following effect :-“A. B., your chief descendant, is suffering from a severe and dangerous sickness ;-if you three kings have in heaven the charge of watching over him, Heaven's great son, let me
The duke cleared and levelled a space EF, 'The tablet, of ground, and there he built three altars facing i.e., the writing, was made by the duke of the south, one for each of the kings to whom Chow; the priest read this writing to inform he intended to pray, - his father, his grandfather, the three kings.' In this way the is altoand his great-grandfather, by whose wisdom and virtues the fortunes of their House had cul- gether unaccounted for. Woo Ch'ing would put minated in the possession of the empire. On the a comma at JYJ, and explains—The historiosame area he raised another altar facing the north, where he himself took his place. K'ang-shing grapher wrote the tablet, and the priest (TR) says that the altars were at Fung (Bk. III., p.2.), read it.' But who does not get the impression and that the area remained to his day. te that the duke of Chow was himself the only 壁秉一璧 and (一)
priest on the occasion ? 爾元孫某 of the five tokens of gem,” mentioned in the duke, no doubt, used the name of king Woo.
-Your great-grandson, such an one.' Can. of Shun, p. 7, conferred by the emperor | But in the Chow dynasty, the practice of 'conupon the various princes in connection with cealing the name,' as it is called (2),
), cane their investitures. There were two peil, belong into vogue. K'ang-shing supposes that it was ing to the tsze and the nan respectively, and king Ching, who first dropt the name, and subthree kwei, that appropriate to the duke of stituted for it, when he found the prayer, Chow being the foll But we can hardly understand the terms here of the badges of
as related in p. 16. = 'to meet nobility, or tokens of imperial appointment. with,' Wang Kóăng-t'ang says : A sage has Gan-kwò says the peih were brought and laid nothing about him which could bring on sickupon the altars of the three kings in reverence
ness, but he may happen to meet with evil to them, and the kwei was the duke's proper malaria in the air :-hence the use of evidence of his person and rank in appearing see a note in the # We need not lay so before them. But from p. 8, we should rather conclude that all the articles were proper to
much stress on the character. 若爾 the worship of the three kings. The best is = EXŹX-this passage has described as resting on a square base, while out. | wonderfully vexed the critics, and the editors wards it was round like the arch of heaven. of Yung-ching's Shoo say that no one inter
Pp. 5–8. The prayer. 5. 79 HUF pretation of it which has been given should be TR=# , 'the grand historiogra- lation is substantially that of Ts'ae, who says: pler. His services were called in to record - I FUTEISTI the prayer. I take TÜL 祝詞, the 其保護之責于天,不可合 language of the prayer.' Gan-kwo explains the clause:一史為册書祝辭 The
如欲其死,則請以日 historian wrote for him ou na tablet or tablets) HE Tt IŹ King Woo is the great the words of the prayer.' This is the view now son of Heaven; you three kings ought to have given in the 'Daily Explanation':-) the charge of protecting him in heaven, and 告三王之神,命太史書說
should not let him die. If you wish that he
should die, pray let me Tan be a substitute for - #1, #E, I I. This, it
This, it his person. Feeling that the TF lay loosely seems to nie, must be the meaning of the text.
on this view in the sentence, he supposed that K‘ang-shing, however, says:
some characters following F have been lost. A r 1 # The interpretations of K'ang-sining and Ying-tă
6 Tan be a substitute for his person. I have been lovingly obedient
to my father; I ain possessed of many abilities and arts which fit me to serve spiritual beings. Your chief descendant on the
other hand has not so many abilities and arts as I, and is not so 7 capable of serving spiritual beings. And moreover he was appointed
in the hall of God to extend his aid to the four quarters of the 'empire, so that he might establish your descendants in this lower world. be seen in the
Hand the lat te would cast E# out of the text; but though Choo He preferred the view of a Chaou E-taou the Historical Records' show us the interpreta(RU), that *='to require the service tion which their compiler put upon the shoo,
their authority cannot always be pleaded in of,' and the meaning is— If God require the favour of this or that reading. services of your eldest son in heaven, let me be We should be glad if we could ascertain from a substitute for him.' Maou K'e-ling prefers this paragraph what ideas the duke of Chow the view of a Sen Chung-san (Po 111):- had about the other world, but his language is
too vague . 惟爾元孫某蓬此,儘 was better able than his brother to serve spirits; ŠIE WINE TE TO THE would have to be performed by him after death? #Ž#F#
and who was the spirit, or who were the spirits, 可死,則請代耳 E. Ts'ae's These questions are suggested by his words; construction of the sentence is not more objec- and yet it may be, that all which he meant to tionable than either of these two. Thus much say was that he was more religious,-more is plain :-first, that the duke of Chow offered
acquainted with ceremonies, and fonder of sacrihimself to die in the room of his brother king better fitted for admission to the spirit circle.
ficial services, -and therefore was somehow Woo; and second, that he thought his offer I suppose he did not know his own meaning might somehow be accepted through the intervention of the great kings, their progenitors,
Chinese critics are concerned to free the duke to whom he addressed himself. P. 6. Reason why the duke should be taken
of Chow from the charge of boasting which may
be fixed on him from the paragraph. Tsëang instead of the king. + E# *-* Te-shằng ( 1 ; Ming dyn.) says :
#= ||K. Gan-kwờ gives the mean "The duke of Chow did not boast of his services, ing as TH E C 'I could affec- here he boasts of himself in such a way to the
but was the humblest of men ;-how is it that tionately obey my father.' Ts'ae takes the spirits of the three kings ? On this occasion, same view, only extending the meaning of
so important to his family and the kingdom,
his love for his brother prevailed over every TL , 'forefathers’ generally. other consideration. He had not leisure to conMedhurst translates the clause by—my bene
sider whether he was boasting or modest. The
case is one of those instances in which the virvolence is equal to that of my forefathers,' which tue of sagely men moves Heaven. Let it not the language will admit of. Woo Ch‘ing, indeed, be lightly thought of or spoken about;'-see the gives for it-我之仁德如父, Stil the 集說 other view is to be preferred. The duke wonld P. 7. Reason why king Woo should be spared. probably have declined to say that he was more virtuous than king Woo, though he was con
Th TJ FI-the there is scious of possessing certain qualities which miglit E or God. Ma Yung says:- TT E render him the better addition of the two to the spirit-world.
Sze-ma Ts'een has only received appointment in the hall of the God of
Sze-ma T's'een has only M F Fifi Ź -king Woo 15 AE, and on his authority Keang Shing heaven. Kledhurst has translated :-" He has