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THE BOOKS OF SHANG.

BOOK V. THE HOUNDS OF LEU.

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旅保厥旅 i

于惟 葵乃墊底盤九通克 旅 用作太貢西道商 葵

1 After the conquest of Shang, the way being open to the nine

wild and the eight savage tribes, the people of the western tribe of Leu sent in as tribute some of their hounds, on which the Greatguardian made “The Hounds of Leu," by way of instruction to the king

The Name of rue Book.- Hi The | K'ang-shing, “is read like the rude tribes Hounds of Leu.' The 37th note of the of the west had no princes, but gave the title Preface, on the subject of this Book, says that of it to the strong among them, who

an their hounds” (pg TieLeu, there- tribe sent at this time the principal man of

governed them for the time. The people of the fore, is to be looked for in the west. It was their chiefs, to present himself at the court of the name of one of the rude tribes, lying in

Chow ;'—see the in loc. But this that quarter, beyond the ‘nine provinces of the

view carries its own refutation on the face empire. He is the name of a kind of hound. of it. The words of the prefatory note are that It was, acc. to the FT FIE, '4 feet--ancient the western Leu presented—as an offering,

-. To feet, that is—high? The mat describes it expressive of their subjection—their

suppose that their chief was thus made an as 'knowing the mind of man, and capable of article of tribute is absurd. Ch'ing's paraphrase being employed”(知人心可使者 of 獻整 by 遣來獻見于周 18 From an instance of its use, quoted in the #from Kung-yang, it was evidently a

quite inadmissible

. The signification of

=hound' is not to be disturbed. The blood-hound. The critics generally under. Book belongs to the division of · Instructions.' stand the term in the text in the singular;--I

CONTENTS. The Leu people having sent some know not why. There is nothing in the Book,

of their hounds to king Woo, and he having and no ancient references to it, which should

received them, or intimated that he would do make us do so. We more naturally take it in

so, the Great-guardian remonstrated with him, the plural, and it seems to me more likely that showing that to receive such animals would be several hounds, and not one only, would be

contrary to precedent, would be dangerous to se'nt to king Woo.

the virtue of the sovereign, and was not the This is one of the Books found only in Gan.

way to deal with outlying tribes and nations. kwo's text. K'ang-shing and Ma Yung had not

The reader will think that the Book is much seen it, and they have strangely mistaken the ado about a very small matter, and in truth it meaning of the prefatory note. He says is so. It receives an interest, however, when

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VOL. III.

用。服方通無夷慎呼O 訓 0食物有威德明日于 王器惟獻遠賓四王鳴王。

二節、

2

He said, “Oh! the intelligent kings have paid careful attention to their virtue, and the wild tribes on every side have willingly acknowledged subjection to them. The nearer and the more remote have all made offerings of the productions of their countries ;we see in it a specimen of the feeling and pro- | the text, that the wild tribes all around came cedure by which the rulers of China have all

or sent to the court of king Woo ;--acknowledgalong sought to regulate their intercourse with foreign nations. When the sovereign does ing his supremacy. Ts'ae says that we are not look on foreign things as precious, foreign- not to understand from v Š , that king Woo ers will come to him:'-this language is a good used any efforts to open roads to the barbarous exponent of the normal Chinese policy. A self- regions beyond the limits of the empire proper; complacent assumption of superiority--supe -it was his virtue and fame which drew them, riority both in wisdom and in power-has always and they came, climbing the hills as if they been displayed. I have read references to the had been ladders, and in boats across the sea.' steam-engine with its various applications, from

It certainly would not have been discreditable men versed in all the learning of China, as if

to king Woo to have good roads made throughit were nothing more than a toy, to be thought of

out all his dominions; and in the passage of the just as the duke of Sbaou thought of the liounds of Leu. Statesmen and people are now, in this referred to above, evidently modelled nineteenth century, having a rude awakening on this part of the Shoo, the opening of the from their dreain. mode. This pare alight have had a place in the 尼日,昔武王克商通道於

P. 1. The occasion on which the Book was thoroughfares is described as his work :- {1 Preface, and Ts'ae calls it 'the proper preface of the Hound of Leur 此旅懿之本九夷百變,使各以其方 方 序) 惟克商一

on the conquest of 來貢,使無忘職業展貢, Shang.' The Daily Explanation 'expands the the same phrase occurs in the Tribute of Yu, clause :-17 T H { IN Pt. 1., p. 52. The force of JEE passes on to the

next character, and indicates that what it says 而有天下, The General History '

took effect. 太保--it is not said anyrefers the tribute of the hounds to the 14th year

where in the Book wlio the Great-guardian of king Won, B.C. 1,120. M ÖF was; but since the commentary of Gan-kwð, tuite il 1971-by the ' nine E and eight Shin, the duke of Shaou. See on the name of

the prevailing opinion has been that he was Man,' we are to understand the barbarous tribes Bk. XII. He was Great-guardian under Woo's generally, expressed in the Can. of Shun, p. successor; and it is supposed--with probability 16, by the phrase 蠻夷,and by 蠻翁 in

-that he held the office also under Woo. the Completion of the War,' p. 6. See also on

Pp. 2–10. THE ADDRESS OF THE GREATthe • Tribute of Yu,' Pt. ii., p. 22. The difft,

GUARDIAN TO KING Woo AGAINST RECEIVING rude tribes round about the nine provinces of

Pp. 2, 3. The precedent of the empire are variously enumerated. Here former wise kings in receiving articles of tribute,

and the use which they made of them. 2. we have the '9 and 8 m;' in the Le Ke, 3k. XIV, 明堂位, p. 3, we have the '9

明王慎德-the language here is to be

taken historically. Medhurst and Gaubil both 夷8變,我 and 5狄; in the Chow

miss this point, and render-When an in

telligent prince is careful in the cultivation I«, Bk, XXXI., TT É, E, of his virtue, &c. The guardian is giring

Ź il tjLE, P. I, we have the 4 it, illustrated by example. The Daily Explana8變,7聞,努5 amd6狄; in the

auld 狄; in the tin' his it:一自古明哲之王 國語會話下, we have the 9夷所以保安民,要在謹 and 100 變

修其德云云慎德, the careful The numbers are not to be pressed, and we

cultivation of virtue,' is said to be the hinge on must be content with finding a statement in which the whole of the address moves. 咸

THE HOUNDS,

不展國伯寶厥異之乃 易親時叔玉服無姓致昭 物人庸之于分替之于德

--see in the dict, on

the character,

3 clothes, food, and vessels for use. The kings have then displayed

the things thus produced by their virtue, and distributed them to the princes of the States of different surnames, to encourage them not to neglect their duties. The precious things and gems they have distributed among their uncles in charge of States, thereby increasing their attachment to the throne. The recipients have thus not despised the things, but have seen in them the power of virtue. - is not merely - strangers,' had not shared their precious things with them,

| -, *guests, but=賓服;

who could have known the sincerity of their 畢獻方物,惟服 love 觀之矣而不以所實分 食器用一方物一其方所生之之則人熟知親親之信也)?

But the clause is evidently related to the $, the articles produced by their country,' preceding He i lik le, and must describe and we may understand also articles manufac- --not the feeling of the emperors from which tured there. The last clause gives a summary the gifts proceeded, but the feeling which they of those articles, and the meaning is that the con

wished to increase in the princes, their relatives. tributions were restricted to these :-7 The explanation of R by is therefore in#ALEXAT 51 hits admissible

. The meaning in the transl. is given 者 3. 異姓之邦伯叔之y Tsae and in the dictionary:一使之益

, the empire being divided into many States 厚其親 or principalities, the emperors of each dynasty apportioned these among their relatives and [In the passage of the from which

I quoted, on the 1st par., the words of Confu同姓之邦 regions of the game surname | cius the sage goes on to say:一於是肅 i.e., their rulers had the same surname as the 慎氏貢猪矢石斧,其長尺 emperors. The regions of different surnames' were the States ruled by Chiefs, attached to 有先王欲昭其令德之 the reigning dynasty, but of a different lineage.

To these the emperors 昭德之致,致遠也,以示後使眾監 < "displayed what their virtue thus produced,' 焉,故銘其括日肅慎氏之 the productions of remote territories, the tribute from distant tribes. The transitive meaning 貢矢以分太姬虞胡公, 昭is very much determined by its correlation 而封諸陳,古者分同姓以 with 分 in the next part of the par. The 珍玉,展親也,分異姓以遠 things were sent about as imperial gifts among 方之職責,使無忘服也 , the States ; so they were displayed,' and served to warn and encourage the chiefs to loyal service and auty. 無替厥服一無廢其 服事之職:

人不易物惟德其物-by 時庸展親一 Gan-kwo explains this by is intended the various princes, receiving 其親親之道, thereby verifying the

the imperial gifts ; . ?K * to slight. 7 sincerity with which they held the principle of $5)—have not slighted the things,' have attachment to their relatives,' taking as=

not dared to think lightly of them, however

little valuable they might be; 1 1 T. Lin Che-k'è supports this interpretation,

they have virtue-ed the things ;' i.e., they have and quotes with approval the words of Wang looked at the things in the light of the virtue which

adherents. "The States of their uncles' were

貞目、以侮盡君狎惟
0百不盡小人子德恩
玩度役其人心盛
人惟耳力以侮物。

惟德

4 “Complete virtue allows no contemptuous familiarity. When a

prince treats superior men with such familiarity, he cannot get them

to give him all their hearts; when he so treats inferior men, he cannot 5 get them to put forth for him all their strength. If he be not in bond

age to his ears and eyes, all his conduct will be ruled by correctness. 6 By trifling with men he ruins his virtue; by finding his amuse

ment in things he ruins his aims. produced them, and as monitions to the virtue / mon idea expressed by the two applications of they themselves ought to cultivate. Gaubil's IP Ph here, and of 5T in p. 6. Such an idea be of no help to a student:-- Ainsi les choses

is that of contemptuous familiarity. Directed qui viennent de la vertu retournent à la vertu.'

to creatures like the hounds of Leu, it will have

more of the character of trifling sport; directed [This passage appears in the t test to men, there will be in the ruler who practises

it a want 五年,along with two other sentences

which he owes to them. # F is descriptive from the Books of Chov,' in the following of men in office, who are to be supposed to have form:-R 7 | There a degree of elevated character. They have their The use which is made of it there is to show minds—their virtues and acquirements, to serve that virtue is the only sure defence of a State.] the sovereign with; but when treated with

contemptuous familiarity, they will despise him Pp. 4–6. How the sovereign's careful attention to his virtue will appear in his guarding against

and go away. 小人 are the people, in whom improper familiarity with men, and foolish cherishing the familiarity of their superiors is sure to of useless creatures and things. This is the breed contempt, so that they will not be careful meaning that is put upon these paragraphs. to labour for them, as they ought to do, with their The interpretation of them, it will be seen, is strength. Ying-tă, aptly enough, quotes, in illusperplexing and difficult. 4. Pilih 7 tration of Thai SIP #F, the words of E Yin, 狎侮 E-comp. 狎侮五行,in the 接下思恭太甲, Pet i, p. 7); and Great Speech,' Pt. iii., 2. Koo Seih-chrow (the words of Confucius, DL EROZA

; Ming dyn.) says upon the terms here: (Ana., XII., ii.), in illustration of JP THE 一押者與之噓也,何者禮人

· 5. 不役耳目一不為耳 之居也一是視為私人,一目所役, ie, if he be superior to the exER Hil, JP is being familiar ternal fascinations that assail him through the

senses, —what are called in the next parawith them; 1. is a haughty disregard of the rules of propriety. The former indicates the graph. , 'the hundred measures,' = looking upon them as mere favourites; the AŹ, the measures of all his conlatter expresses the treatment of them as

duct.' A certain rule—of correctness' (easily consorted with. For the two terms, however, we have the one term 5T, 'to make sport JE)-is supposed, by which the ruler, free from with’in p. 6. The Daily Explanation’ says,

the bondage of his senses, will endeavour to on that par., that the first 5T is the 5 of actions, it is said in the 'Daily Explanation,'

regulate all his conduct. His words and contempt, and the second the ST of fondness' will all be conformed to the measure of perfec

tion, and he will not dare to transgress it an (上玩字玩忽之意,下玩字 inver.

6. 51-see on par. 4. ContempSTF ). But we must And a com- tuous familiarity with men destroys that self

夜則則不土物乃不以爽

遠育性民成作道德 或人 人于不乃

不乃不無事 不安格國音

國畜足貴益言物 勤O所不珍

珍犬異害以喪 不鳴寶寶禽馬物有道志 矜呼惟遠奇非賤益接。 細凤賢物獸其用功O 志 志高

7 "The aims should repose in what is right; words should be listened

to according to their relation to right. 8 “A prince should not do what is unprofitable to the injury of what

is profitable, and then his merit may be completed. He should not value strange things to the contemning things that are useful, and then his people will be able to supply all his needs. Even dogs and horses which are not native to his country he will not keep; fine birds and strange animals he will not nourish in his kingdom. When he does not look on foreign things as precious, foreigners will come to him ; when it is worth which is precious to him, his

own people near at hand will enjoy repose. 9 “Oh! early and late never be but earnest. If

you

do not attend jealously to your small actions, the result will be to affect

your

virtue respect and reverence for right which is at the Leu, though he does not expressly mention foundation of all virtue. A fondness for, and

them, 不作至民乃足,一these two fondling of, creatures like the hounds of Leu brings the whole mind down to the level of little clauses are of a general character, and may be things.

applied to an endless variety of subjects. Ę P. 7. The rule for a prince's aims, and his in

乃足,一

,-'the people will be sufficient.' Chin 道一所當由 之理, the principles according to which we

Tih-sey aya:一貴異物則征求多, 言以道接一人

TTT ET , 'If he set a value on strange ought to proceed.'

things, his exactions and requirements will be so Ź W T The first clause is many that the people will not be able to meet

them.' illustrated by Mencius' (II., Pt.

大馬至不音-these dogs

and horses might be useful, but being foreign, 1., ii. 9), and the second by his (ib, the virtuous sovereign will have nothing to do p. 11); also by Shun's language in "The Counsels with them! 珍禽一珍 is here an good anough in their way, but the object which | adjectives = 珍美之禽不寶 evident ;-sce the remark of Wang Pin at the -see the remarks on this in the conclusion of his Doubts'about this Book.

note on the Contents of the Book. P. 8. What things a sovereign should abstain

Pp. 9, 10, How the sovereign is to cultivate his from cherishing and pursuing, and what things he shoulil prefer and seek. In this par. the Guardian virtue by an untiring attention even to the smallest comes at last to the subject of the hounds of matters, and what grand results will flow from such

tercourse with others.

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