« הקודםהמשך »
I. In the thirteenth year, the king went to inquire of the vis
2 count of Ke, and said to him “Oh ! viscount of Ke, Heaven, unseen,
has given their constitution to mankind, aiding also the harmonious development of it in their various conditions. I do not know how their proper virtues in their various relations should be brought forth in due order.”
perhaps only made it known that he would flee —to Corea. King Woo respected and admired his attachment to the fallen dynasty, and invested him with that territory. He now felt constrained to appear at the court of Chow, when the king took the opportunity to consult him on the great principles of government, and the result was that he communicated this ‘Great Plan, with its nine Divisions. Being first made public under the Chow dynasty, it is ranked among the “Books of Chow. It is often referred to, however, as one of the ‘Books of Shang,' as having emanated from the viscount of Ke, - who should properly be adjudged to that dynasH'. as the name; but there would be no advan- ty. When £ £ £ We : that tage gained by departing in such a matter, from it originally belonged to the time of Hea, and the established usage. The Book is found at least the central portion, or text of it,-par.
‘plan. Other synonyms of # , given in the
dict., are =\ and #, both conveying the same idea of ‘plan, or ‘model. The name, like that of the last Book, is taken from the Book itself. We read in par. 2, that “Heaven gave to Yu the Great Plan, with its nine Divisions. Some
would adopt the whole of this, - }}: # ju
in both the texts. 4,—should be ascribed to the great Yu. We
History of THE Book, AND MoDE or IN- have therefore a fragment in it of very ancient TERPRETATION. The viscount of Ke had said learning. How this had come into the possesthat when ruin overtook the House of Shang, sion of the viscount of Ke we cannot tell. It he would not be the servant of another dynasty; does not seem to have occurred to the Chinese —see ‘The Wiscount of Wei, p. 8. Accordingly, critics to make the inquiry. Whether we he refused to acknowledge the sovereignty of should ascribe all the paragraphs from the 5th king Woo, who had delivered him from the downwards to the viscount, is also a point on prison where Show had put him, and fled-or which I cannot undertake to pronounce a posi
says that ‘though the words are those of the viscount of Ke, the record of them was made by the historians of Chow.’ That the central portion of the Book, and more or less of the expository part, came down from the times of Hea is not improbable. The use of the number nine, and the naming of the various divisions of the ‘Plan, are in harmony with Yu's style and practice in his ‘Counsels,' and in what we may call the “Domesday Book.’ We are told that “Heaven—God—gave the plan with its Divisions to Yu. Upon this Gan-kwö says that “Heaven gave Yu the mysterious tortoise, which made its appearance in the waters of the Lö, bearing marks on its back well defined, from 1 to 9; and thereupon Yu determined the meaning of those numbers, and completed the nine divisions of the plan.’ This legend has been fathered on Confucius, as we read in the “Appendix to the Yih king’
gave forth the Scheme, and the Lö gave forth the Book (or defined characters), which the sages
that these words proceeded from Confucius or were edited by him, while it is absurd enough to speak of the two rivers giving forth the Scheme and the Book, he says nothing of the Scheme being on the back of a dragon, which has been the current statement for more than 2,000 years, or of the Book being on the back of a tortoise. Moreover, there is no evidence that he meant to connect the “Book of Lö’ with the ‘Great Plan” at all. We should rather imagine that he supposed the Scheme and the Book to be equally related to the diagrams of the Yih, and to have been both presented to Fuh-he. I hardly know an interpreter, however, but Lin Che-ke, who has not adopted the statement of Gan-kwó; and the consequence is that the explanations of this Book are overlaid with absurd twaddle about the virtue of numbers as related to Heaven and Earth, to the Yin and the Yang, the cardinal points, &c, &c.. The following figure has been imagined as that which was exhibited to Yu :
Near the head of the tortoise, it is said, were the nine open marks, and opposite was the one close mark. The two and the four were at the shoulders; the six and the eight were by the feet Three and seven were on the left and right, and five were in the centre. Out of those numbers, odd and even, heavenly and earthly, now multiplied, now added together, the whole of the Plan and its Divisions is developed, with a glibness of tongue and a leger-de-plume, which only familiarity with the Yih-king, and the applications of it to astrology, geomancy, and other follies can produce. There is of course no ‘solid learning'
(#f *#) in all this. We shall have to endea
vour to treat seriously of it, when we come to the Yih-king, but it should be exploded from the study of ‘The great Plan. The Book will be found dark enough in itself, but the viscount of Ke says nothing of occult qualities of numbers, from which the ideas in the different divisions of the Plan could be deduced. It will be my object, therefore, simply to elucidate the meaning of the whole as a scheme of government, intended to guide all rulers in the discharge of their duties. Gaubil says that ‘the Book is a treatise at once of Physics, Astrology, Divination, Morals, Politics, and Religion; and that it has a sufficiently close resemblance to the work of Ocellus the Lucanian. There is a shadowy resemblance between the Great Plan and the curious specimen of Pythagorean doctrine which we have in the treatise On the Universe. The dissimilarities are still greater and more numerous. More especially are the different characters of the Greek mind, speculative, and the Chinese mind, practical, apparent in the two Works. Where the Chinese writer loses himself in the sheerest follies of his imagining, he would yet grope about for a rule to be of use in the conduct of human affairs. One of the most interesting curiosities which were obtained in 1861 from the ‘Summer palace’ near Peking, / was a scroll, purporting to be in the handwriting of the emperor K'een-lung, dilating on the meaning of ‘The great Plan, and the lessons to be learned by sovereigns from it. There is a general agreement among the critics in assigning its place to the Book either among the ‘Counsels' of the Shoo, or among the ‘Instructions.” CoNTENTs. I avail myself here, with a little variation, of the account of these given in the ‘Complete Digest of commentaries on the
Shoo (#####)—The whole divides
itself into three chapters. The first, parr. 1–3, is introductory, and describes how the ‘Great Plan with its Divisions was first made known to Yu, and came at this time to be communicated to king Woo. The second, in p. 4, contains the Plan and its Divisions. The third, parr. 5–40, contains a particular description of the several Divisions. “The whole, says the writer, “exhibits the great model for the govt. of the empire. The fifth or middle division on Royal Perfection is, indeed, the central one of the whole, that about which the Book revolves. The four divisions that precede it show how this royal Perfection is to be accomplished, and the four that follow show how it is to be maintained.’
Ch. I. Pp. 1–3. KING Woo APPLIEs To THE viscouxT of KE FoR INForMATION ABouT
2 fif #). Men have thus the material
body and the knowing mind, and Heaven further assists them, helping them to harmonize their lives. The right and the wrong of their language, the correctness and errors of their conduct, their enjoyment of clothing and food, the rightness of their various movements:—all these things are to be harmonized by what they are endowed with by Heaven. Accordance with the right way gives life, and error from it leads to death. Thus Heaven has not only given life to men, and conferred upon them a body and mind, but it further assists them to harmonize their conditions of life, so as to have a pro
The viscount of Ke thereupon replied, “I have heard that of old time K“wān dammed up the inundating waters, and thereby threw into disorder the arrangement of the five elements. God was thereby roused to anger, and did not give him “the great Plan with its nine Divisions, whereby the proper virtues of the various relations were left to go to ruin. K“wān was then kept a prisoner till his death, and Yu rose up to continue his undertaking. To him Heaven gave “the great Plan with its nine Divisions, and thereby the proper virtues of the various relations were brought forth in their order.
peuple tranquille et fixe. Il s”unit a lui pour seen, in the second introductory note, how it is l'aider a garder son Etat. Jene connois point fabled that Yu received the great Plan front
II. “Of those divisions, the first is called ‘The five Elements; the second is called ‘The Reverent Practice of the five Businesses'; the third is called ‘Earnest Devotion to the eight objects of Government; the fourth is called ‘The Harmonious Use of the five Arrangements'; the fifth is called ‘The Establishment and Use of Royal Perfection’; the sixth is called ‘The Cultivation and Use of the three Wirtues'; the seventh is called ‘The Intelligent Use of the Examination of Doubts’; the eighth is called “The Thoughtful Use of the various Verifications’; the ninth is called ‘The Hortatory Use of the five Happinesses, and the Awing Use of the six Extremities.’