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政大後前若味 容封由定一以徒有林英 圈比舊乃我倒敵會受

刊釋反衣 戈 于率 圈墓天流攻我牧其 臺式子政下漂 師

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Shang, waiting for the gracious decision of Heaven. On the day këă-tsze, at early dawn, Show led forward his hosts like a forest, and assembled them in the wilderness of Muh. But they would offer no opposition to our army. Those in the front inverted their spears, and attacked those behind them, till they fled, and the blood flowed till it floated the pestles about. Thus did king Woo once don his arms, and the empire was greatly settled. He overthrew the existing government of Shang, and made it resume its old course. He delivered the count of Ke from prison, and raised a tumulus over the grave of Pe-kan. He bowed in his carriage at the gate of tsin, so that they were able during the night to believing it.—When the prince the most benecomplete the order of battle. This view is at volent was engaged against him who was the once far-fetched and shallow. 甲子昧

most the opposite, how could such a thing be?'

It gives, no doubt, an exaggerated description 爽, ; -see the “Speech at Muh,' p. 1. It of the slaughter which took place. #f 若林會于牧野 ,—see the She King, the wooden pestles of the mortars, which the Pt. III., Bk. 1. Ode II., 7, te We need not suppose, as some do (see a note in

soldiers carried with them to prepare their rice. 會如林矢于牧野 Size-mail the 集傳 by 蔡清, that they were Ts'een says that Show's army amounted to the pestles used for pounding the earth in 700,000 men, which is doubtless a great exag- making the intrenchments. Maou K'e-ling geration. tik Ft Bibi,—the historian prefers the reading of , ' shields,' for #f. identifies himself with Woo's army. 以 Mei Tsuh Chi ) would save the credit of 76-76Bis, 'to flee.' Ts'een gives a difft. Mencius at the expense of the classic. If, he account of the battle. At least he makes no

argues, it had appeared, as in the present text, mention of Show's troops falling upon one an

that the slaughter was occasioned by Show's other, but says that Woo sent his general troops turning against one another, there would Shang-foo, with a hundred of the most daring have been no occasion for the philosopher's rewarriors, to dash forward at the head of a large mark. The forger of Tsin evidently constructed body. Show's army had no mind to fight, but his text that king Woo might not appear chargereally wished king Woo to penetrate their host. able with the bloodshedding, which Mencius T'hey therefore inverted their lances, and made supposed might be attributed to him! It is ray for his men. They in fact all revolted much more natural to believe that Mencius, in from Show, who fled at once to the “Stag the impulse of his ardent nature, spoke as he tower.”' This account is not reconcileable, did, -unadvisedly. 一戎衣-once he however, with the statement which follows about the blood flowing till it floated the put on his martial garb.' See in the • Doctrine pestles of the mortars.'

of the Mean,' xviii., 2. Comp. also on 疲 The remarks of Mencius on the passage--MİL Bk. IX., p, 4. 反商政he 流漂杵 are well known. He attests (VII. turned back the govt. of Shang, i.e., he took Pt. II., iii.) that the Completion of the War' away the oppressive laws of Show, and thencontained such a pussage, but protests against TX, 'followed the old govt.' i.e., the

下報悼五位惟列击

五位惟而栗之 治功信教 教事三節 萬大

惟 惟建惟姓齊發

能官五悦于矩

重惟分服。四橋 天德

祭民賢士0海之

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垂拱而天

Shang Yung's village. He dispersed the treasures of Luh-t'ae, and distributed the grain of Keu-k'eaou, thus conferring great gifts

throughout the empire, and all the people joyfully submitted. 10 He arranged the orders of nobility into five, assigning the ter

ritories to them on a threefold scale. He gave offices only to the worthy, and employments only to the able. He attached great importance to the people's being taught the duties of the five relations of society, and to take care for food, for funeral ceremonies, and for sacrifices. He showed the reality of his truthfulness, and proved clearly his righteousness. He honoured virtue, and rewarded merit. Then he had only to let his robes fall down, and fold his hands, and the empire was orderly ruled. govt. of Tiang and the other good sovereigns | Jo-keu absurdly says that this is different from who succeeded him. 釋箕子囚封 the account of Mencius. It is different, how

ever, from the account which we find in the 比干墓一

一ce the concluding note to the | Chow Le, Bk. IX (地官大司徒) • Viscount of Wei,'

#W-t, There the orders of nobility are five, as in Mensee Con. Ana.. X., xvi., 3. Shang Yung must

cins, but the divisions of territory are also five. have been some worthy in disgrace with Show, le square; to the low, 400; to the Pih, 300; to

To the Kung, it is said, there were assigned 500 and living retired in his village. Ying-tă quotes the Tsze, 200; and to the Nan, 100. I don't see come account of him from Hwang-p'oo Meili's | how the two accounts are to be reconciled. If

it be said that the five-fold territorial division 帝王世記,bnt it is the production of a

was made by the duke of Chow at a subsequent 散鹿臺之財,發鉅period, which is the view of Krangeling, why 橋之粟,一f the Stag tower' we have that the larger timensions arose from the usure spoken. Keu-k'eaou was in the north east of pations of the States among themselves, which

is the view of Ying-tă, how is it that they have the pres, dis, of Keuh-chow (

HH)), dep. of

any place in the Chow Le ? Kwang-ping (廣平), Chih-le, where Show

建官惟賢, had collected great stores of grain. These two

位事惟能,一the historian proceds to measures were directed to the benefit of the Woo's provisions for the officers about his court. masses of the people, impoverished by the exac His object was to have none in office but men tions of the tyrant.

of talents and virtue, and that each man's duties P. 10.5 l 7,51 EH = should be those for which he was specially able. --this agrees with the account of the arrange 重民五教,惟食,喪祭,一 ment of dignities and emoluments determined by the House of Chow, given by Mencius, Book

Gan-kwo explained the former of these clauses V., Pt. II., ii. The orders of nobility were the by inserting an fil between F and 11.

五教, Kung, How, Pih, Tsze and Nan, to the two first

- he attached importance to the people, and to of which were assigned a hundred le square of territory, each, while the Pih had 70, and the the inculcation of the five duties.' This is not Tsze and the Nan only 50 le square each. Yen 80 good as to take E to be under the regimen

later age.

or

of TL **. The force of it extends to the representative of the House of Yin to the terdifft. terms in the second clause, and It is used ritory of Sung'; the pres. dis. of Shangas a connective particle. I.in Che-k'e compares këv (The BiB), dep. of Kwei-tih, Ho-nan). its use here with the same in the Tribute of These appointments were given, not because of Yu,' Pt. i., pp. 44 and 51. It is said that Woo services rendered to the new dynasty, as many gave eff:ct to this solicitude for the instruction others were, but from respect to the memories of the people by establishing schools, -educa- of the great men represented, that the sacrifices tional institutions of various kinds; and to make

to their spirits might not fall into disuse. good the provision of food, he enacted the hundred now allotment and the share system' the two preceding Books. King Woo proceeded

[ii]. On the specifications of time in this and (see Mencius, III., Pt. I., iii.). PT MJ from his capital to the attack of Show on the

3rd day of the 1st month of what is called -19-2, 'to make solid, or real.' The his 13tlı year, s.c. 1121 (Gaubil, 1122); and in li or truthfulness' belonged, the critics say, to cording to the "Great Speech, Pt. i. P: 1), he all his governmental orders, and the fidelity crossed the Ho at Mång-ts-in. Ts'ae Ch'in supwith which they were kept, and the

poses that the year intended was that of Hea,

which has been that of all the dynasties of ‘righteousness,' to all his actions. We have in

China since the Han. Now the first month of the 'Daily Explanation :'- it; -A the present Chinese year began on the 18th of

our February, and the cycle name of the day 必守之以信,而始終不渝

was mow-shin (&). If we multiply 2984 Ilti

WW 1 solar years, which have elapsed since the 13th of 動無過舉 垂拱=垂衣拱

Woo's reign, by 365.24224, we obtain the number

of days from that time up to the end of last 'to let the robes hang down, and fold his Chinese year, = 1,089,882.84416, or 18164 cycles hands ceremoniously before his breast.' The of days and 42 days more. But it will be found, meaning is, that by the excellence of his institu.

on calculation, that the first day of new moon tions and example, there was superseded the in February, 2984 years ago, occurred three days necessity of any further laborious measures or earlier that in the present year. Reckoning back efforts. The good order of the government fol. therefore 18,164 cycles and 46 days more from lowed as a matter of course.

CONCLUDING NOTES. [i]. On the inves- mow-shin of the present year, we come to jintitures granted by king Woo. The e te seuh (11%)as the first day of the Hea year

in the 13th of Woo's reign; and the view of * L , under the year b.c. 1121, gives a

Ts'ae cannot be sustained. list of the principal States into which the empire

Reckoning back other 30 days from It was divided in the dynasty of Chow ;-viz. Loo (10), Wei (15) , Tsʻae (735), Tsin (), we come to the day jin shin (ITE),

as the

first day of the first month in the year of Shang; Ts-aou (), Ch'ing Woo (吳), Yen

and according to the view of Fan Sze-lin, ap(e) Ch'in (8), Sung (#), Tete (F),

proved of rather by the editors of Yung-ching's

Shoo, this is the day intended in the classic as Ts'oo (), and Te'in (. I will not here the first day of the first month spoken of. It is enter into particulars on each of those principa- only one day after sin-maou. It would thus aplities, as I shall have to speak of most of them pear that not only is Ts'ae in error in saying that in connection with one or other of the following

we are to understand that the months in the text Books. I will now only refer to what is in the

are the months of the year of Hea, but that the

other commentators are equally mistaken in Bk. se ut, of the Le Ke, Part iii., par. 19,- referring them to the year of Chow. They are thatóking Woo, on the overthrow of the Shang those of the year of Shang, beginning with the dynasty, before he descended from his chariot, last month of winter. This conclusion lightens invested the representative of llwang-te with somewhat the difficulty occasioned by the menthe territory of Kell; the pres. dis. of Ta-hing, tion of the spring,” in the “Great Speech," (tl) in the dep. of Shun-t'een); the repre- day mow-won, which certainly was close upon

the spring. If it be thought that the whole of sentative of Yaou with Chuh (TP ; the pres. the first month is interided to be described as

in the spring,' we must believe that in consedia . of Chang-tsʻing (

F1, in the dep. of quence of deficient intercalation, an error of Tse-nan); the representative of Shun with Ch'in one whole lunation had crept into the calendar (Beth; the name remains in that of the dep.

by the time of the rise of the Chow dynasty.

On suggesting that this might be the case to a Ch'in-chow, Ho-nan); and when lie had descend

very intelligent Chinese scholar, he replied, ed from his chariot,-i.e., subsequently,—he in- ' How can you think that the sages could have vested the representative of Yu with Kie (! Will be seen in the prolegomena on the subject this name also remains in that of the dis. of of the astronomy and chronology of the ancient K'e, in the dep. of Kíae.fung); and he sent the Chinese, that this was probably the case.

放至萬鹿由流有甲午尚遇潤暴周天步惟
牛 姓臺

臺舊、漂 敵子師克亂數玲王后自
悦之釋杆于味相晏子天發、土、周月

、、 乃服。財、 我爽孟子華小物將所于千 林偃0發子我師受津以夏子害有過征辰 沈 之武臉鉅囚衣前率癸濟響既虐大名伐旁考 修四橋封天徒其亥 翁獲

(獲悉正山商。死 示 文月之比下倒旅陳

陳民因仁民于大O魄 天歸 粟 大戈若于無不人為 商 5、 川底越成 下馬生 定攻林商作率

率敢 天 日商 弗于明資式乃于會郊神像

神俾祇 惟之日, 服。 王于商反後于侯 美羞。惟 道王

山來四容商以牧天 0爾 逃受
之自海闊政北野休既有 主無
陽、商而散政血图命戊神以萃道、孫皇朝

APPENDIX.

TIIE COMPLETION OF THE WAR, AS ARRANGED BY TSAE CH‘IN.

In the first month, the day jin-shin immediately followed the end of the moon's waning. The next day was kwei-ke, when the king in the morning marched from Chow to attack and punish Shang. .

Declaring the crimes of Shang, he announced to great Heaven and the sovereign Earth, to the famous hill and the great river, by which he passed, saying, '., Fă, the principled, king of Chow, by a long descent, am about to have a great righting with Shang. Show, the king of Shang, is without principle, cruel and destructive to the creatures of Heaven, injurious and tyrannical to the multitudes of the people, chief of the vagabonds of the empire, who collect about him as fish in the deep, and beasts in the prairie. I, who am but a little child, having obtained the help of virtuous men, presume reverently to comply with the will of God, to make an end of his disorderly ways. The great and flowery region, and the wild tribes of the south and north, equally follow and consent with me. And now, ye spirits, grant me your aid, that I may relieve the millions of the people, and no turn out to your shame!”

On the day mow-woo the army crossed the ford of Măng; on the day kwei-hae it was drawn up in array in the borders of Shang, waiting for the gracious decision of Heaven. On the day këătsze, at early dawn, Show led forward his hosts like a forest, and assembled them in the wilerness of Muh. But they would offer no opposition to our army. Those in the front inverted their spears, and attacked those behind them, till they fled, and the blood flowed till it floated the pestles about. Thus did king Woo once don his arms, and the empire was greatly settled. He overthrew the existing government of Shang, and made it resume its old course. He delivered the count of Ke from prison, and raised a tumulus over the grave of Pe-kan. He bowed in his carriage at the gate of Shang Yung's village. He dispersed the treasures of Luh-tíae, and distributed the grain of Keu-keaou, thus conferring great gifts throughout the empire; and all the people joyfully submitted.

In the fourth month, at the first appearance of the moon, the king came from Shang to Fung, when he hushed all the movements of war, and attended to the cultivations of peace. He sent back his horses to the south of mount Hwa, and let loose his oxen in the open country of Taoulin, showing the empire that he would not use them again,

拱喪賢列天其成集小天我王、啟若日甸命既 而祭位休士命予那命文學土,日庚侯于生

悼事惟震女星小懷以考基公鳴戊備周魄、 下信 惟五動、能予子其撫文王劉呼柴駿O感 治。明能、分用厥東其德方王杰克羣望奔丁邦

義、重土附征承惟夏克王篤后大走、未家 崇民惟我黄厥九大成季前惟告執君 德五三大昭厥志。年厥其烈先武豆于蟹 報 報教建邑我士O大畏動勤至王成。篷、周百 功惟官周周女無統其誕王于建O越廟工、

垂食惟0工作天未力齊家、太邪王三邦受 After the moon began to wane, the hereditary princes of the various States, and all the officers, received their appointments from Chow.

On the day ting-we he sacrificed in the ancestral temple of Chow, when the chiefs of the imperial domain, and of the teen, how, and wei domains, all lurried about, carrying the dishes. Three days after, he presented a burnt-offering to Heaven, and worshipped towards the inountains and rivers, solemnly announcing the successful completion of the war. The king spake to the following effect :

-Oh! ye host of princes, the first of our kings founded the State and commenced our territory. The duke Lew was able to consolidate the merits of his predecessor. But it was the king Tae who laid the foundations of the imperial inheritance. Then king Ke was diligent for the royal House; and my deceased father, king Wăn, completed his merit, and received the great decree of Heaven to soothe the regions of the great bright land. The great States feared his strength; the small States cherished his virtue. In nine years, however, the whole empire was not collected under his rule, and it fell to me, who am but a little child, to carry out his will. Reverently obeying the determinate counsel of Heaven, I pursued my punitive work to the east, to give tranquillity to its men and women. Its men and women brought their baskets full of azure and yellow silks, to show forth the virtue of us the kings of Chow. Heaven's favours stirred them up, so that they came with their allegiance to our great State of Chow,

He arranged the orders of nobility into five, assigning, the territories to them on a threefold scale. He gave offices only to the worthy and employments only to the able. He attached great importance to the people's being taught the duties of the five relations of society, and took care for food, for funeral ceremonies, and for sacrifices. He showed the reality of his truthfulness, and proved clearly his righteousness. He honoured virtue, and rewarded merit. Then he had only to let his robes fall down, and fold his hands and the empire was orderly ruled.

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