« הקודםהמשך »
4 After the moon began to wane, the hereditary princes of the
various States, and all the officers, received their appointments from Chow.
Gan-kwo defines by t, 'great,' 'in only after this would a new order of things take great state ;' it is better to take it with Ts'ae after the 爾雅·8-速豆導一 [In the Books of the early Han dynasty, see Con. Ana., VIII, iv. 3. It was an honour to
- To, compiled by Lew Hin the chiefs and princes to assist at the sacrifice. I $-between ting-we we find three quotations as from the tit hl.
The first agrees with the 1st par, of the and kăng-seuh there are two days, so the latter was the 21st or 220 day of the month. In Bk. chapter.1 –
In Bk. chapter.1 IESE, XI, p. . we have 丙午越三日戊若翼日癸已武王乃朝步 1, where both ping-woo and mow-shin must H, FIE # tit. The second be reckoned to make up the three days ;--the is not found in the received text, nor any trace writers had different methods equally legitimate, of it; but it agrees sufficiently with the first of reckoning. , --see on the Can. of par. of the Speech at Muh,' and the statement
in the 9th par. of this book. Shun,' p. 8. ,-see on the ‘Can. of Shun,' P: 6. This sacrifice was offered, I suppose, at (some editions have , incorrectly) JE the altar of the great earth, mentioned in Bk. I., Pt. i., p. 10. 4. princes and officers
死霸粤五日甲子,咸劉商 receive their appointments from Woo, as the first 7. **. It is then stated that there was a emperor of the dynasty of Chow.
A second month intercalary in this year which bethe moon begins to wane, the darkness is gan with the day ; that the third month in the text is generally supposed to be the 16th ; began with Et, and the fourth month with the day, the phrase would have been E# Then comes the third quotation.-魄,corresponding to 既生明 in p.2. Kle
惟四月既旁生霸,粤六日 would lay stress therefore on the it, as show
庚戌,武王嫁于周廟翼日 ing that the darkness was not only born," but # Til F# E TZ had made some growth; and fixes the day as 印乃以应國敬于周廟, the 17th. But here there is a difficulty.-The historian goes backward instead of forward with
• In the fourth month, on the day king-seuh, his narrative; the 17th would precede the day the 6th after the 16th, king Woo made a fire ting-we. Ying-tă calls attention to this cir
in the ancestral temple of Chow. Next day,-cumstance, he himself supposing the day to be
the day sin-hae,-he sacrificed at the altar of the 16th ; and in the fact of the chiefs assisting Heaven; and five days after,-on the day yihat the sacrifice in the ancestral temple he sees
maou, -attended by the princes of the various a proof that they had previously received their States, he sacrificed and presented the heads of appointments from king Woo. I should Show and his two concubines in the ancestral
temple.' Here the intimations of time are myself extend the force of the ele much more different from those which we have in parr. 3 than Ch'in does. Why may not the phrase and 4 of the text. Possibly the here A indicate any between the 15th and
the of par. 3 ;—and they are referred to the end of the month, when we should come to the death or end of the darkness? The his.
the same day. We cannot trace any other torian has chosen to indicate thus indefinitely correspondencies. the day when the princes and officers received The question occurs,—Where did Lew Hin their appointments from Woo. As to their assisting on the day ting-we at his sacrificial find the copy of the it hf, from which he service, that might very well be. Things could made these quotations? Yen Sze-koo supposed not be done in order while the revolution was they were taken from some copy of Fuh-shang's in progress. From the taking the field against Booke ; see an art. by Choo He in the under the new supremacy, all was irregular and But Fuh-shang did not possess the it
德其撫勳考其肇前歌后 惟力方誕文 基烈土惟 九小摩王 王 王至公先 年邦大天克家迹于劉王 大懷命成我王克建 統其是以厥文王篤邦
5 II. The king spake to the following effect :—“Oh! ye host of
princes, the first of our kings founded the State and commenced our territory. The duke Lew was able to consolidate the merits of his predecessor. But it was the king T'ae who laid the foundations of the imperial inheritance. Then king Ke was diligent for the royal House; and my deceased father, king Wăn, completed his merit, and received the great decree of Heaven to soothe the regions of the great bright land. The great States feared his strength; the small States cherished his virtue. In nine years, however, the whole Yen Jo-ku, Wang, Ming-shing and others think the same. K'e was not a king, but Woo here that he took them from the copy of the 'Old calls him so. Text,' which Gan-kwo had transcribed, and
篤前烈,一篇厚 which was preserved
in one of the imperial si i sh Fl. K'e is to be understood as repositories. We know that Lew Hin had access to this copy, and it is possible that he Lew's 'predecessor.' 大王,一by king might quote from the il nt in it. Tae is intended Tan-foo.肇基王
. It There is, however, another way of accounting - first founded the traces of imperial sway;' for the quotations. There was a copy of the see in the She King, the · Praise-songs of Loo,' it hit current in the Han dynasty
, as we iv. 2, where it is said of T'ae that 'he dwelt on have seen there was of the Kang- the south of mount Kée, and began to shear the shing states that it was lost in the reign of the dynasty of Shang' uit Ź 1 do not know whence it was derived From the heat );-not, say the critics, that he last quotation we may suppose that its character had any intention to do it, but the hearts of the was like that of the copy of the Great Speech,' people were so drawn to him, that they became which likewise disappeared. It appears to me devotedly attached to his House. 文考 more likely that the quotations by Lew Hin were made from it than from the old Text
to * E-my deceased father Wan, the king which he had access. The authority of the re- Wăn. We cannot well repeat the honorary ceived text, such as it is, need not be affected
title in the translation, by the differences between it and the passages
誕膺,一greatly in the 律歷志
received';齊一受 以撫方夏 Ch. II. Pp. 5,7. ADDRESS OF KING Woo To -以撫安四方諸夏, On 夏 THE PRINCES, ON GIVING THEN THEIR INVESTITURES. 5. Sketch of the history of the
see the Can. of Shun, p. 20. 大邦 See the introductory note to Book 1. on the # # # # # - this passage name of this Part of the Shoo.先王 the
is quoted, as from the Books of Chow,' in the tä says that we know that Kte, Shun's min. of this the great united whole. # # former king, '- the first of our kings." Ying & X=+-+ mentioned before the duke Lew. The predi- ###* was not yet collected cates #tik --suficieutly indicate in his person.
于王惟過于, 甫 亂發有名皇 逃 暴令將道
empire was not collected under his rule, and it fell to me, who am
but a little child, to carry out his will. 6 Detesting the crimes of Shang, I announced to great Heaven
and the sovereign Earth, to the famous hill and the great river, by which I passed, saying, ‘I, Fă, the principled, king of Chow, by a long descent, am about to have a great righting with Shang. Show, the king of Shang, is without principle, cruel and destructive to the creatures of Heaven, injurious and tyrannical to the multitudes of the people, chief of the vagabonds of the empire,
[In the “Doctrine of the Mean,' xviii., 3, it - there is much difficulty in giving any approis said that 'the duke of Chow completed the virtuous course of Wăn and Woo,' and that he priate meaning to t It has been defined by carried up the title of king to Tiae and Ke, and 2 , and think. The last is given sacrificed to all the former dukes above them with the imperial ceremonies. As it was thus
in the Daily Explanation; the detesting 'in the duke of Chow who carried up the title of the translation is as allowable, and that is all king to Tan-foo and Ke-leih, completing what that can be said for it. 皇天后土, Woo had left undone, it has been asked how we find those titles here in the mouth of king Woo. --comp. what was said on the phrase Flue I apprehend that the merit of the duke of Chow in Bk. I., Pt. i., p. 3. This is the only place in was in extending the practice of honouring an the Shoo where the combination at to the princes, the great officers the scholars; Ying-tă understands, I think correctly, by Z took counsel on the subject with his brother Hi mount Hwa, and the Ho by * III. the duke of Chow. Perhaps it was by his advice that he did it; but there can be no doubt that
Critics generally take / and III in the plural. he had conferred the titles mentioned in the We must understand, of course, that Woo made text. The thing is commemorated in the Le his announcement to the spirits of Heaven, Earth, Ke, the Bk. t , p.2. I give the whole the mountain, and the river. 有道會 paragraph here, because it gives a strong con- FR -I take and the as in apfirmation not only to this par., but also to the two position. Such is the view of Ying-tă, who preceding ones. -** Z TEŽA observes that Woo, in asking the help of the
spirits, and speaking of hiniself in contrast with . i £; *#EN, Show would not affect a false humility. Ts'ae TT # Tit, # refers to lis forefathers, and construe the phrase 天下諸侯轨豆遵竣奔走, as under the regimen of the Bests, which means 追王大王宣父王季歷文 literaly great grandson. 周王發,一 王昌,不以卑臨尊
Ts'ae supposes that M E is an interpolation, Pp. 6-8. He relates the prayer which he —which seems very likely. 大正,一 addressed to the spirits of Heaven and Earth, of mount IIwa and the Ho, in contemplation of the comp. the use of TE in the “Speech of T'ang,' engagement with Show, 6. 底商之罪,p.2一不敢不正,暴珍天物
不過承仁小蓉 萃 厥予天率變亂上人子淵 士東成俾貓客帝敢既數、
who collect about him as fish in the deep, and beasts in the prairie. I, who am but a little child, having obtained the help of virtuous men, presume reverently to comply with the will of God, to make an end of his disorderly ways. The great and flowery region, and
the wild tribes of the south and north, equally follow and consent 7 with me.
Reverently obeying the determinate counsel of Heaven, I pursue my punitive work to the east, to give tranquillity to its 一砂一絕, to destroy uterly,天物, take 俾here in the sense of 從 to follow, ' 'the creatures of Heaven;'' including nien,' says so that the clause='all follow one another to Lin Che-k'e, but they are further specified,' follow me.' Gan-kwĎ would put a comma at because of their greater importance.' en 2, and taking in its common siguification 天下遁逃主萃(一聚淵數, of 使 join it to the next clanase. This has in -the paraphrase of this in the 'Daily Explanatin' is:一 天下有罪在逃之人
its favour, that the in next par. stands
more naturally at its commencement than as 所當誅之,以安良善者 we read it at present. The rhythm of the style, 也受反收留之與彼為主, howevery require that we join and 伸
. 有司莫之敢捕,如魚之聚 [In the 左傳昭七年,
we find : 于深淵獸之聚于林戴“The 昔武王數約之罪,以告諸 criminals and vagabonds of the empiro ought 侯日,天下道逃主,举 to be taken off and rooted out, to secure the repose of the good, but Show receives and maintains them, and is their chief, so that the officers only as guaranteeing so much of the prayer, but
The quotation is important, not do not dare to apprehend them. They are as fish collected in the deep waters, and as beasts
also as showing that the prayer was a part of gathered together in the forests and thickets.'
the address which king Woo made to the
princes. It is on this that Maou K'e-ling FA FELGEN-we have mainly relies in protesting against the way in seen the references made by Woo in the Great whicli Choo He and others propose to break up Speech,' Pt. ii., 9, et al., to his virtuous men.'
and re-arrange the paragraphs of this Book.] We may compare with the sentiment bere that 7. See the manner in which this paragraph of Tang in his · Announcement,' p, 4., where he is adduced by Mencius, III., Pt. II., V., 5.
There are important alterations in the strucsays that before taking his measures against ture, the philosopher not directly quoting, but Köě, he .sought for the great sage, with whom using the passage so as to suit his purpose. he might unite his strength' (# Gan-kwă puts all the verbs in the past tense, 與之戮力) ** Et place in the 11tlı year, when there was the first
assemblage at Mang-tsin, and Woo returned, Erti Ź, 'to receive or comply with without proceeding to the attack of Show. But the will of God.'
there is no sufficient evidence of snch a meeting. 亂略-Gan-kw takes
The two clauses, moreover, #nti mit, 略 in the sense of 路, ways; Tsat takes it in that of all, counsels, “plans. Both expla T i 11E, fix the whole par. to the time
then being,--the time in which it was offernations are allowable. 華夏一
ing his prayer. .
館厥玄黄一-base the 'Can of Shun,' p. 20. 變窮,一
keted their azure and yellow fabrics.' See the Anan, X Y., v. 2. 率俾 1901, --Ts'ac and others many descriptions in the Tribute of Yu' of the
作予爾我天玄惟 陳自 神以有大休黃其 于逾羞濟神邑震昭士
men and women. Its men and women bring their baskets full of azure and yellow silks, to show forth the virtue of us the kings of
Chow. Heaven's favours stir them up, so that they come with 8 their allegiance to our great State of Chow.
And now, ye spirits, grant me your aid, that I may relieve the millions of the
people, and nothing turn out to your shame!” 9 III. On the day mow-woo the army crossed the ford of Măng ;
on the day kwei-bae it was drawn up in array in the borders of offerings brought in baskets. 昭我周
me indeed.' It is remarkable how, in the course I-displaying our kings of Chow. Some God' and to · Heaven,' as supreme. Why was
it not addressed directly to God? There are say that azure and yellow are the colours of heaven and earth respectively, and that the both imperfect monotheism and polytheisın in object of bringing such fabrics was to show
it. God is recognized as supreme, and at the that the kings of Chow were as good and bene
same time other spirits are recognized, who ficent as Heaven and earth. It is not necessary
would give effect to His will, and might be to seek for such a recondite meaning. The prayed to for that purpose. As Woo addressed bringing of the baskets was an expression of alle
his army in the grey dawn of the day at Muh, giance, and an acknowledgment of the virtues religious knowledge in his mind.
we may say that he had but the grey dawn of of the House of Chow. 大邑周-I I will not add anything here to what I quoted take here - 國, as we saw that Keang | abruptness and seeming incompleteness withi
from Ying-tă in the introductory note on the Shing proposed to do in the last Book, p. 6. which the prayer terminates. It would have
8. I tj mb, the spirits are those of been better if there had been some additional Heaven and earth, of the mountain and the river. cxpression of Woo's own feelings and purposes,
and some inculcation of duties on the princes. The conclusion is sufficiently bold. Woo must
It may be that a portion of the Book has been have felt sure that his enterprise was right, lost; or it may be that we do have all which and in accordance with the supreme mind and Woo was pleased to say. will.
Ch. III. Pp. 9, 10. THE BATTLE OF MUA, Medhurst ('Theology of the Chinese, p. 55) has
WITH KING Woo's PROCEEDINGS IMMEDIATELY translated the par. : -Only may you shins be
AFTER; AND SI'BSEQUENT MEASURES, 9. the people, and do not bring disgrace on your 4 4. Biti -comp. the shin-ships.' He observes upon it, that the Great Speech,' Pt. i., p. 1. On this same day he form of expression would intimate that there delivered the address recorded in that Part. was some power above the shins invoked, and that it was possible they might be unable to 癸亥陳于商郊-kwei-hae grant the needful assistance. There is no such the 3rd of the 2d month, five days after mowindication in the form of the expression as he woo. From Măng-tsin to Show's capital was 400 supposes. 尚克相予 is not-may you
le, so that Woo must have hurried on his army be enabled to assist me,' but 'grant me, I pray
with great speed. 侯天休命-the you, your help. The te denotes an efficacy favourable decree'
of Heaven was to be seen in
the result of the impending battle, about which in the spirits themselves, and gives emphasis, Woo felt quite confident. Gan-kwò says that as we have often seen to be its force, to the
this clause has reference to the ceasing of the word that follows, so that it HP T = 'help rains which had fallen all tlie way from Mång