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After the moon began to wane, the hereditary princes of the

various States, and all the officers,

Chow.

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received their appointments from

only after this would a new order of things take

[In the Books of the early Han dynasty, #

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The first agrees with the 1st par. of the

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is not found in the received text, nor any trace of it; but it agrees sufficiently with the first

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par. of the ‘Speech at Muh, and the statement

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second month intercalary in this year which began with the day # # ; that the third month

began with E #, and the fourth month with E. H. Then comes the third quotation

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“In the fourth month, on the day käng-seuh, the 6th after the 16th, king Woo made a fire in the ancestral temple of Chow. Next day, the day sin-hae,—he sacrificed at the altar of Heaven; and five days after,-on the day yihmaou,—attended by the princes of the various States, he sacrificed and presented the heads of Show and his two concubines in the ancestral temple.’ Here the intimations of time are different from those which we have in parr. 3

and 4 of the text. Possibly the '' here =

the of par. 3;—and they are referred to the same day. We cannot trace any other correspondencies. The question occurs,—Where did Lew Hin find the copy of the jit Ji', from which he

made these quotations? Yen Sze-koo supposed they were taken from some copy of Fuh-shang's

Books; see an art. by Choo He in the # Ét. But Fuh-shang did not possess the jä Jk.

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The king spake to the following effect:—“Oh! ye host of

princes, the first of our kings founded the State and commenced

our territory.
his predecessor.
of the imperial inheritance.

The duke Lew was able to consolidate the merits of
But it was the king Tae who laid the foundations
Then king Ke was diligent for the

royal House; and my deceased father, king Wän, completed his merit, and received the great decree of Heaven to soothe the regions of the great bright land. The great States feared his strength; the

small States cherished his virtue.

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In nine years, however, the whole

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empire was not collected under his rule, and it fell to me, who am but a little child, to carry out his will. Detesting the crimes of Shang, I announced to great Heaven and the sovereign Earth, to the famous hill and the great river, by which I passed, saying, ‘I, Fä, the principled, king of Chow, by a long descent, am about to have a great righting with Shang. Show, the king of Shang, is without principle, cruel and destructive to the creatures of Heaven, injurious and tyrannical to the multitudes of the people, chief of the vagabonds of the empire,

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i I' “Doctrine of the Mean, xviii., 3, it —there is much difficulty in giving any appros said that ‘the duke of Chow completed the pri - virtuous course of Wän and Woo, and that he #" #: '# has been defined by carried up the title of king to Tae and Ke, and and - The last is given saarifiao - - | * * • sacrificed to all the former dukes above them in the ‘Daily Explanation; the “detesting' in

with the imperial ceremonies. As it was thus - - * the duke of Chow who carried up the title of the translation is as allowable, and that is all

king to Tan-foo and Ke-leih, completing what that can be said for it. H! J# +, Woo had left undone, it has been asked how we | - he pl find those titles here in the mouth of king Woo. --comp. what was said on the phrase # 3th I apprehend that the merit of the duke of Chow in Bk. I., Pt. i., p. 3. This is the only place in was in extending the practice of honouring an- * - - - • cestors, beyond the circle of the imperial family, the Shoo where the combination Jä +. occurs to the princes, the great officers the scholars, Ying-tä understands, I think correctly, by % and the common people. King Woo no doubt

took counsel on the subject with his brother LII mount Hwa, and the Ho by # J||.

the duke of Chow. Perhaps it was by his advice Critics generally take ||| and J|| in the plural.

that he did it; but there can be no doubt that he had conferred the titles mentioned in the We must understand, of course, that Woo made

text. The thing is commemorated in the Le his announcement to the spirits of Heaven, Earth, Ke, the Bk. >< #, p. 2. I give the whole the mountain, and the river. *H

paragraph here, because it gives a strong con- 3%—I take # and + 3% as in apfirmation not only to this par., but also to the two position. Such is the view of Ying-tä, who

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Pp. 6-8. He relates the prayer which he -which seems very likely. żk IE,addressed to the spirits of Heaven and Earth, of - *- * mount Hwa and the Ho, in contemplation of the comp, the use of IE in the ‘Speech of T'ang,

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who collect about him as fish in the deep, and beasts in the prairie. I, who am but a little child, having obtained the help of virtuous

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of his disorderly ways.

resume reverently to comply with the will of God, to make The great and flowery region, and

the wild tribes of the south and north, equally follow and consent

Reverently obeying the determinate counsel of Heaven,

I pursue my punitive work to the east, to give tranquillity to its

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Its men and women bring their baskets full of

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azure and yellow silks, to show forth the virtue of us the kings of

Chow.

Heaven's favours stir them up, so that they come with 8 their allegiance to our great State of Chow.

And now, ye

spirits, grant me your aid, that I may relieve the millions of the people, and nothing turn out to your shame!"

III.

On the day mow-woo the army crossed the ford of Māng;

*/ on the day kwei-hae it was drawn up in array in the borders of

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it.

indication in the form of the expression as he

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you, your help. The %. denotes an efficacy in the spirits themselves, and gives emphasis,

as we have often seen to be its force, to the

me indeed. It is remarkable how, in the course of the prayer, reference is expressly made both to “God’ and to “Heaven, as supreme. Why was

it not addressed directly to God? There are

both imperfect monotheism and polytheism in God is recognized as supreme, and at the same time other spirits are recognized, who would give effect to His will, and might be prayed to for that purpose. As Woo addressed his army in the grey dawn of the day at Muh, we may say that he had but the grey dawn of religious knowledge in his mind. I will not add anything here to what I quoted from Ying-tä in the introductory note on the abruptness and seeming incompleteness with which the prayer terminates. It would have been better if there had been some additional expression of Woo's own feelings and purposes, and some inculcation of duties on the princes. It may be that a portion of the Book has been lost; or it may be that we do have all which Woo was pleased to say. Ch. III. Pp. 9, 10. THE BATTLE of MUH, wITH KING Woo's PROCEEDINGs IMMEDIATELY AFTER; AND st"BSEQUENT MEAsUREs, 9

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le, so that Woo must have hurried on his army

with great speed.

{% #fff: 6– the favourable decree of Heaven was to be seen in the result of the impending battle, about which

Woo felt quite confident. Gan-kwo says that

this clause has reference to the ceasing of the

word that follows, so that 5. #f +. = help

rains which had fallen all the way from Mang

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