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I. In the first month, the day jin-shin immediately followed the

end of the moon's waning.

The next day was kweike, when the

king in the morning marched from Chow to attack and punish

Shang.

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THE NAME OF THE Book—it Ji', “The Successful Completion of the War. The phrase —ić Ji', meaning, literally, ‘military affairs completed, occurs in the 3d paragraph, and has thence been taken to denominate the Book. It is not objectionable as a designation; though it by no means covers the contents, they all grow up around the accomplishment of Woo's enterprise. The Book is found only in the old Text.

DIFFICULTIES IN THE ARRANGEMENT AND INTERPRETATION. These will fully appear in the course of the exposition; it may be sufficient here to describe them generally, and for that purpose I will use in the first place the words of Ying-tá. He says:—“This Book consists mainly of narrative; the portion composed of the king's words is small. The language of the several parts is without the beginning and the end properly marked, and its composition altogether is different from that of the other Books.

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lost.

‘Perhaps it was wanting when the tablets were hidden away in the wall; perhaps it was among the confused and broken fragments which Gan-kwó says there were in addition to the 58 Books which he recovered. As he found in the tablets of this Book a beginning of it and an end, he did not say anything of the intermediate portion being deficient.”

Ying-tä was thus of opinion that the Book was deficient; but it does not appear that he had any doubts as to the relative order in which the several portions stand. He thought some tablets were lost; but did not suppose that any of those preserved had been displaced. In the Sung dynasty, however, the critics assumed not only that there were portions missing, but that the remaining tablets were all disordered

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their several ways of arranging them so as to produce a consistent marrative; and Ts'ae Ch'in, profiting by the determinations of his master Choo He, produced an edition of the Book, which has superseded the old one in the copies of the Shoo which are now taught in schools. It will be found, with a translation, in an appendix. Scholars of the present dynasty for the most part acquiesce in his views, when they do not discard the old text altogether. There are some, however, who think they can improve on him, and Wang Loo-chae has given a disposition of the paragraphs somewhat different in his edition of “Doubts about the Shoo.” Maou K'e-ling will not admit either of disorder or defect in the Book. He has certainly

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disorder in the parts which the Sung critics complained of and tried to remedy, -if indeed we should call it disorder,-existed even during the Chow dynasty. Maou says, “If the text be not good, we have only to be content with it as it is. In this he is right. The ingenuity of the critics has not been of service either to history or the classic. CoNTENTs. Those are summarily and correctly stated in the prefatory Notice.—‘King Woo smote Yin; and the narrative of his proceeding to the attack, and of his return and sending his animals back to their pastures, with his governmental measures, form ‘The Completion of the War. The whole is divided in Yungching's Shoo into 9 parr., which I have rearranged in 10, including them also in three chapters. The first chapter, containing 4 parr., consists of brief historical notes of the commencement and close of Woo's expedition. The second also contains 4 parr., and gives the address (or a £ of it) delivered by Woo to his nobles and officers on occasion, we may suppose, of their solemn recognition of him as emperor, and of his confirming some of them in their old investitures or appointments, and giving new ones to others. The third, in the two concluding parr., is again historical, and

relates several incidents of the battle betwcen

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In the fourth month, at the first appearance of the moon: the king came from Shang to Fung, when he hushed all the movements

of war, and attended to the cultivations of peace.

He sent back

his horses to the south of mount Hwa, and let loose his oxen in the open country of T'aou-lin, showing the empire that he would not

use them again.

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and cut the head off with his “yellow' battleaxe, and made it be suspended from the staff of a large white flag. Much in the same way he dealt with the bodies of two of Show's concubines who had killed themselves; and then returned to his army. These accounts are taken from the ‘Historical Records, and are put down by subsequent writers as lying legends, inconsistent with Woo's character. Next day he entered the capital of Shang in great state, attended by his brothers and the chiefs of his host, and solemnly accepted the charge of the empire. It was said to him, on behalf of all the nobles, ‘The last descendant of the House of Yin having destroyed and disowned the bright virtue of his forefathers, having insolently discontinued the sacrifices to the spirits, and having blindly tyrannized over the people of Shang, the report of his deeds

ascended to the great God in heaven” (# #

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On the day ting-we he sacrificed in the ancestral temple of Chow, when the chiefs of the imperial domain and of the teen, how, and wei

domains all hurried about, carrying the dishes.

Three days after,

he presented a burnt-offering to Heaven, and worshipped towards the mountains and rivers, solemnly announcing the successful com

pletion of the war.

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