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一飾

矢以右左野于爽時。 西摩秉乃至甲 土日白黃誓郊朝子 之逃准鐵王牧至味

STANCES OF THE SPEECH.

1 I. The time was the grey dawn of the day këă-tsze. On

that morning the king came to the open country of Muh in the borders of Shang, and addressed his army. In his left hand he carried a battle-axe, yellow with gold, and in his right he held a white ensign, which he brandished, saying, “Far are ye come, ye

The Name of the Book.-* , 'The selves in the fight. The speech proper begins Speech at Muh.' Muh [Keang Shing edits precede may be considered as forming a prelimiItt instead of Muh] was in the south of the nary chapter.

Ch. I. Pp. 1-4. THE TIME AND CIRCUMpres. district of Ke (8), dep. of Wei

1. The time ; and hwuy, Ho-nan. It was a tract of open country, the appearance of the king. 時甲子昧 stretching into the pres. dis, of Keih (TX), and

爽,一the day 甲子 was six days later than at no great distance from the capital of Show. King Wov had, no doubt, made choice of it as a

mow-woo (“The Great Speech' Pt. ii., p. 1), favourable field for the decisive battle between

which was, we saw, the 28th of the 1st month. him and the tyrant.

I return here to the The speech at Muh, therefore, is held to have

been spoken on the 4th day of the second month. rendering of this by "Speech,' as in the Counsels

味一算, dark;爽一明, light;朱 of the great Yu,' p. 20, and other places. It would have been well if the term . Declaration, the dark and the light,'-the grey dawn. had not been used instead of it in the last Book. The Speech at Muh is found in both texts.

that=## 'to hold in the hand.' Its There is more of the martial spirit in it than in tone in this sense was difft, at one time from any other of the speeches of the Shoo.

that which it had in its more common significaCONTENTS. It is the morning of the day of tion of a staff.' It now seems to be used only battle, for which the king had prepared his host with the 3d tone. 秉( (from a hand grasping in the three speeches of the last Book. Once more he addresses the confederate princes, his stalks of grain) is of similar signification to fit officers, and his men. He sets forth, much as before, but more briefly, the intolerable wicked low,' from its having been ornamented with gold.

The 'axe' is supposed to be called "yelthe troops on how they should behave them- The te ensign consisted (according to the figuren

矛戈亂長亞司友人。
子比漢罰百旅徒弟 0

人 人鬼夫師司家王
劉長。氏馬君

君日 稱曼徹0千司御医 王嘉爾爾盧及夫空事我

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2 men of the western regions !” He added,

He added, “Ah! ye hereditary rulers of my friendly States; ye managers of affairs, the ministers of instruction, of war, and of public works: the many officers subordinate

to them: the master of my body-guards: the captains of thousands, 3 and captains of hundreds; and ye, O men of Yung, Shuh, Keang, 4 Maou, Wei, Loo, P'ang, and Po;-lift up your lances, join your

shields, raise your spears :- I have a speech to make.

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of it, which agree with the component parts of the business of intrenchments. Ts'ae seems the character) of several ox-tails, suspended as to have thought that they were there as the streamers from a staff. By means of this Woo generals of the three armies of the State. This could intimate his wishes as to the order of their is not likely ;-see Chéin Sze-k-ae, in loc. We position, &c., to the troops, and therefore he car can only form a vague idea on this, as on many ried it in his right hand. Gan-kwò says the other points in the Shoo. 亞旅一亞 axe was in the left hand and the flag in the right, to show that Woo considered his work was not so * secondary,' 'of inferior rank’; tife much to kill as to teach. This is being absurdly ingenious. We may be sure that Woo had his multitude," • many.' I do not find it posaxe in his right hand in the battle.

sible to say whether we are to understand by

these characters the multitude of inferior , 'far,” distant.' The Daily Explanation officers' generally, or two distinct classes of

such. Gan-kwo had the former view. He paraphrases the clause thus: 爾等皆西 £ ŹN, #BH HE E Ź phrase denotes all the great officers," whose

Says:一架大夫,其位次卿“The #katt, #11 E posts were inferior to those of the ministers.'

Ts'ae on the other hand supposes that the # Ta‘ae observes that he spoke thus to

were the t * or “great officers,' below, comfort the men under their long travel. Pp. 2, 3. The different parties addressed.

but next in rank to, the ministers, and five of

whom filled up the space between each minister 2. 我友邦冢君御事,

and his 士 or officers,' of whom there were the last Book, Pt. i., p. 2. The managers of

+ affairs' were the officers immediately after 27, denoted in the text by the term tite: specified, belonging to Woo's own govt., to biti -the Instructor.' The functions of the State of Chow. The 司徒,司馬, an officer thus designated are given at length and 司空 were three of the ‘six ministers' in the 13th Book of the Chow Le (

HÉ a typ) under the imperial govt. of Chow, WEŹt)

. He was a ta-foo or great ofwhen the dynasty was fully established, and ficer of the second grade, and the 'Tutor of the heirwhose duties are described in Bk. XX., parr. apparent, at the same time executing various 7-13. A great State, such as Chow was before duties about the sovereign, and specially having the extinction of the Shang dyn., had only three charge of the guard of foreign-barbarian-merprincipal ministers, whose nanies are here given. cenaries who kept watch outside the royal gate. But we may inquire what the ministers of in- In time of war, or when the sovereign went struction and works had to do in the camp. abroad for any other cause, he followed in atYing-tă says that the former superintended all tendance, with the whole or a portion of that orders given to the troops, and the latter all guard. It must have been in this capacity

- see on

0之惟之光無言人日 今索家晨鍋晨雞已有古

5

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II. The king said, “The ancients have said, “The hen does not announce the morning. The crowing of a hen in the morning that he was present at Muh;--if indeed the Wei was to the east, radiating from the pres. Bibi H of the the text was the same officer dis, of Pa (4), dep. of Chung-k'ing, as who is so designated in the Chow Le. Ts'ae a centre. Loo is referred to the present dis. follows Gan-kwờ in saying that the Giti of Nan-chang (M), dep. of Sëang-yang were “the officers who guarded the gates' (), in Hoo-pih. The name of 兵守門者. FÅRT

Pang remains in Pang-shan dis., dep. of Mei

), Sze-ch‘uen. All these tribes, we le ; -we can only translate these designations

may suppose, acknowledged the supremacy of literally as I have done. According to the the princes of Chow, and had been summoned Chow Le, five men formed a woo (171); five to assist king Woo in his enterprise against woo, or 25 men, formed a lëang (T); four

Show. Some critics, like Wang Loo-chae (E lëang, or 100 men, formed a tsuh (); five tsuh,

7; see his 'Doubts about the Shoo,' on

the Specch at Muh), say that they had come to or 500 men, formed a leu (HE); five leu, or his banner of their own accord, without being

called ;-—which is very unlikely. 2,500 men, formed a sze (GTTI); and five sze, or

[Gaubil says in a note on this par. (Le Chou12,500 men, formed a keun (). Gan-kwở king, p. 157), that Yung, Shuh, &c., were the and Wang Suh both say that the cod fun-pan. To this M.'de Guignes appends were 'leaders of tsuh,' which of course is literally a very bold and sweeping remark :- I will correct; but they say also that the F*k add," he says, “that all the peoples in the text were leaders of sze, commanded 2,500 men bear the name of it, or barbarians. Thus, this each. K'ang-shing agrees with them in this, conquest of China, made by king Woo, was but makes the H *l to have been ‘lead a conquest effected by the foreigners on the

west of China. The remark is unwarranted. ers of leu' CHE

Che Ah), commanding 500 men So far as we learn from the Shoo, these tribes each. It seems absurd to insist on such ex

were only an inferior and auxiliary force on planations. The arrangements of Woo's army

the occasion.] much more probably corresponded with the 4. Attitude in which the troops were required to terms which he employed. 3. The names Yung, Shuh, &c., enumerated here, are said listen. = 'to lift up;' apparently generally to be those of eight kingdoms of

=“to bear aloft in the right hand.' ithe rude tribes on the west and south' (PL

# H, 'to erect on the ground,' i.e., to rest 南夷八國名). The first and last are

the end on the ground, the points being shown found associated together in the t t * a ospearThere were three weapons of the nature t, in an attack upon the great state their points which would be difficult to describe of Tsoo. It is said that the people of Yung.... in brief space, but principally distinguished by led the hundred tribes of the Pð to invade their lengths,—the t, the file and the . Ts*00;' and trom this description of the Pă by Acc. to Wang 'Ts'ëaou, the handle of the ť "hundreds ' it is supposed that they were under no general Head or chieftain, but consisted

was 6 ft. 6 in. long ; that of the 16 ft.; and of many clans, each acknowledging its own chief. The site of the Yung was in the pres. of the F, 21 feet. Medhurst translates dis. of Chuh-shan (445 ip), dep. of Yun-yang by ' javelin ;' but I have not seen it anywhere

stated that the instrument was thrown from the (UBL), Hoo-pih; that of the Põ was in the

haud.

The F

or “shield' was long and same prov., dep. of King chow (HFH), dis. comparatively narrow, so as to cover most of of Shih-show To

The country of

the body.

Ch. II. THE SPEECH. Pp. 5, 6. The crimes Shuh was the pres. dep. of Shing-too () $13) of Show. 5. the morning,' here = in Sze-ch'uen. West and north from this was the country of Këany: while that of Maou and AEG BW crows in the morning to an

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姦究于商邑

答用 虐為長多不 棄受 于大是罪迪厥厥惟 百夫信道乃遺肆婦

姓鄉是逃惟王 今以去使是四艾弗是

是以為大夫卿士

I think

And we must bear in mind the character and

6 indicates the subversion of the family.' Now Show, the king of

Shang, follows only the words of his wife. He has blindly thrown away the sacrifices which he should present, and makes no response for the favours which he has received; he has blindly thrown away his paternal and maternal relatives, not treating them properly. They are only the vagabonds of the empire, loaded with crimes, whom he honours and exalts, whom he employs and trusts, making them great officers and nobles, so that they can tyrannize over the people, exercising their villainies in the city of Shang. nounce the day.' is defined by Gan-kwă | better, Woo Ching says that 王父母弟 by 盡;and by Keang Shing, after Kang-shing, =王之諸父諸母,諸弟, the royal by 說: The two definitions are much akin. uncles, royal aunts, royal cousins.' Woo's language may seem rather undignified; we must join IX together, and agree with but it was, no doubt, suited to his audience. Wang Ts'eаou that IEEEX deeds of Ta-ke against whom it was directed. The general meaning is plain 6. 賢 ( 昏棄厥肆祀ough-that Show separated himself from all

his relatives, both by blood and by affinity, who -comp. the last Book, Pt. i., 6; Pt. ii., 5. would naturally have the interests of the impe1-B, " to set forth ;' lik mil=it rial House at heart. 不迪,一迪一道, 所當陳之祭祀, the acrities which and 不迪-不以道遇之, as in the he ought to offer. Kang-shing understood by translation, Keang Shing takes jb = { 建 “the name of a sacrifice';—but incor

登, and 迪-不用, does not emrectly. , 'to answer,' 'to make an acknow-ploy them. The meaning is not unsuitable ; ledgment for favours received,' such being the but it is not so good as that which I have fola common meaning of sacrifice with the Chinese; lowed. l) ='refugees. Woo Ch'ing -Tung-po says 祭所以報也,故謂| say:一四四方多罪之人逃亡而 之答 Here also K‘ang-shing incorrectly i *t, the great criminals of all quarters defines by PW; and 7 -7 PU, make their escape, and betake themselves to without asking any questions, or thinking Chow.' 商品,一the city of Shang, about them.' 王父母弟-Gan-kws | probably meaning the capital of Show. takes I , as = H or grandfather,' say- might translate , however, in the plural. ing that if he thus treated his grand-uncles, we Keang Shing takes it as = 國kingdouu'ur may be sure he did not treat his uncles any / State.'

or

We

爾夫魏夫伐0步日子

子克如子也不會乃之發 有 0奔 0伐止事悄 戮爾以 如尚乃于齊 所役麗桓止

爸 弗西于桓伐夫于 晶土商如為五子

郊虎伐晶 子 哉弗如哉哉七今

發惟恭行天之罰今

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7 “Now I, Fă, am simply executing respectfully the punishment

appointed by Heaven. În to-day's business do not advance more

than six or seven steps; and then stop and adjust your ranks:—my 8 brave men, be energetic! Do not exceed four blows, five blows,

six blows, or seven blows; and then stop and adjust your ranks :9 my brave men, be energetic! Display à martial bearing. Be like

tigers and panthers, like bears, and grisly bears ;-here in the border of Shang. Do not rush on those who fly to us in submission,

but receive them to serve our western land:-my brave men, be 10 energetic! If you are not thus energetic, you will bring destruction

on yourselves.

Pp.7-10. Directions about the rulelean |步,即便止駐,以整齊部伍 be observed in the impending battle. first part of this pur had better be joined to 然後復從而伐之, In advancing the one preceding. King Woo speaks in it of himself in contrast with Show;-of himself as

to meet the enemy, take no more than six or engaged on behalf of Heaven to punish one who

seven steps. Then stop and adjust yo ir ranks, was an enemy to both Heaven and men. Ts'ae and go forward again to smite them.' and others, prefixing it to this and the succeed. # F -,-see the last Book, Pt. ii., p. 9. than the reader will easily perceive. The stop- 8. He still

, to strike and thrust.' they think, that as few of the enemy as possible should be hurried on in their rage by a desire ping at every seven steps and seven blows was, They are thus admonished, it is said, lest they might be killed. In this way the tyrant would be overthrown and Heaven's justice would be for slaughter. 3. 桓桓威武貌 satisfied with the sacrifice of comparatively few the appearance of martial prowess.' The lives! The cautions were evidently given that the order of battle might be preserved unbroken.

quotes the passage with Jā instead 一過, to exceed. 步-進 of 桓 is described as 'to advance hurriedly., 齊齊(a kind of panther. 弗克奔

'do not meet those who are able to—who really 整, to adjust and put in order: The para | do-run. The meaning is as in the translation phrase of the 'Daily Explanation’ is : # Këang Shing, however, edits fit instead of ji , 進而迎敵不過于六步七 after Krang-shing Ma Trung also read 禦

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