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上技修囚點 四心涉結息 奴師 每作

作之 巧廟 正保 威歷 順以家主屏信殺剖民。

民自 祝悦享郊棄姦戮賢: 絕 隆婦作社典回毒人勤于 時人奇不刑放痛之朝天

The illustrious

to wild idleness and irreverence. He has cut himself off from

Heaven, and brought enmity between himself and the people. 3 “He cut through the leg-bones of those who were wading in

the morning; he cut out the heart of the worthy man. By the use of his power killing and murdering, he has poisoned and sickened all within the four seas. His honour and confidence are given to the villainous and bad. He has driven from him his instructors and guardians. He has thrown to the winds the statutes and penal laws. He has imprisoned and enslaved the upright officer. He neglects the sacrifices to Heaven and Earth. He has discontinued the offerings in the ancestral temple. He makes contrivances of wonderful device and extraordinary cunning, to please his woman. -God will no longer indulge him, but with a curse is sending down -it seems most proper to explain these thought their legs had a wondrous power of

enduring cold, and had them cut off through clauses by what is said below that Show had

the shank-bone, that he miglit see their diarrow. violated the five virtues.' ways of Heaven,' therefore, are the various 剖

賢人之心,一this refers to the relationships, of society, and their characters,'

毒痛四海一痛 are the duties severally belonging to them. This view is advocated by Ying-tă, who is fol- = 'to be sick”; here, ' to make sick.' hand, understood by the illustrious ways, Tel-lej - FB or it,

曲, the crooked, Heaven's love of virtue and hatred of vice, and

= 'the bad.' their characters,' the good and evil which

囚奴正士,一this was severally attend them;-making reference to the case of the count of Ke. 郊社,一 the use of the phrase F in the Counsels

on the 'Doctrine of the Mean,' xix. 6. 婦 of Yu,' p. 21, and in the ‘Announcement of Tang, p. 3. This interpretation is in: |,-this refers to Ti-ke. History has not genious and not without merit;

but the other is preserved an account of the cunning contrivances preferable. JW TELU-P-referred to. Ts'ae says that since Show con

trived 'the punishment of Roasting' to make DE: "easily "lightly ;' JIP 19 ' slights her laugh, we can well understand that he and contemns.' IL 五常: 一se on 五典

tasked his ingenuity to the utmost in other • Can. of Shun,' p. 2.

things to please her. 祝降時( P. 3. An enumeration of Show's wickednesses E-Gan-kwò defines TR by F (up. and summons to the officers to support the king in 20 tone), to cut off,'' to make an end of." "Ts'ac, punishing him. 新朝涉之肥,一

misunderstanding for the same char. in the Gan-kwở tells us that Chow, one winter's day, secing some people wading through a strean, 34 tone, explains the clause by phone

case of Pe-kan.

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0多尚士本世獨日恭喪 鳴有 1 珍肆彎夫撫行 呼厚果殲予樹我 惟賞毅乃小德洪則罰

罰我 我不以警子務惟后 0孜 文迪登爾誕滋作虐古 考有乃眾以除威我人 若 辟士爾惡乃則有

戮 功其眾務次彎 人


on him this ruin. Do ye support with untiring zeal me, the one

man, reverently to execute the punishment appointed by Heaven. 4 The ancients have said, “He who soothes us is our sovereign; he who oppresses us is our enemy.' This solitary

This solitary fellow Show, having exercised great tyranny, is your perpetual enemy. It is said again, 'In planting a man's virtue, strive to make it great; in putting away a man's wickedness, strive to do it from the root.' Here I, who am a little child, by the powerful help of you, all my officers, will utterly exterminate your enemy. Do you, all my officers, march forwards with determined boldness, to sustain your prince. Where there is much merit, there shall be large reward.

Where you advance not so, there shall be conspicuous disgrace. 5 “Oh! the virtue of my deceased father Wăn was like the shining ut, “is determinedly sending down of the day like the first two. The former of

them appears, slightly varied, as an old saying,' this rain' But 祝, like the Hebrew barakiss in the 左傳,京元年,其尚迪 vox media, and may be used for 'to curse'as Bk F-'with

果毅-the union of and to expres

earnest exhortation, has occurred more than P. 4. Show had shown himself the enemy of the

迪一進, to advance'果

and people, never to be forgiven; and Woo calls his mother are both defined

by # and #, 'dework with the tyrant. 獨夫受,一this termined? It is Baid-致果為毅毅 was certainly very strong language, applied to is the intensest determination.' 登乃 the reference to it by Mencius, 1., Pt. II., viii . Hit-jf, to complete. The

Daily It is much in his style. Seun-tsze has quoted Explanation' brings the meaning out by sayit as from the Great Declaration in his 議 | ing:一以成爾君吊民伐罪之 兵篇 世警—ar

an hereditary ene TH, 'to accomplish the work of your ruler in my,' one whose memory must be held in consoling the people and smiting the criminal.' detestation in all the future, 樹德...... Pp. 5, 6. T'he virtue of King Wăn, and its

effects. Success in the present enterprise would be #-those clauses are probably sayings owing to him ; failure, is failure there should be;

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well as 'to bless.' wearied efforts.'


子有予考予0周西于, 無罪非無武子誕土四之 良。惟联罪惟克受惟方照

曼联更多我顯臨 小考克文非方。有于光

and influence of the sun and moon. His brightness extended over the four quarters of the empire, and shone signally in the western

region. Hence it is that our Chow has received the allegiance of 6 many States. If I subdue Show, it will not be my prowess, but

the faultless virtue of my deceased father Wăn. If Show subdue me, it will not be from any fault of my deceased father Wăn, but because I, who am a little child, am not good.” would all be Woo's own. 5. The greater hand. The 'Daily Explanation,' expanding his part of this par. appears in Mih-tsze CE, construction, says :

一文考之德其所 下篇), thus:一太誓日文

太誉日,文王若及如此,是以人心戴之天 日若月照光于四方于命歸之,惟我有周宜其大 西土 惟我有周誕受多受多方而有天下,“Thung far

reaching was the virtue of my father Wån:71,- I have translated this in the indicative the hearts of men cherished him, and the decree mood, as historical narrative. Such is the view of Heaven fell to him. Right it is that our of Gan-kwè who explains ;- *Et the many regions, and possess the empire. I

House of Chow should receive the allegiance of 故受象方之國,三分天下,

must prefer to construe with the older scholar.

6. The whole of this par, is found with 而有其二, “The virtue of king Wan | the verbal variation of 約 for 受, in the Le was so great, that he received the allegiance of the States of many quarters, and had two thirds Ke, Book tij . p. 16. In TIE TE TJE, of the empire.' Ts'ae found in the language an we must take lightly, as merely – 過, auspice of Woo's success in the enterprise in '.fault,'error.'


I annex here the “Great Declaration," as it appears in Këang Shings 尚書集註音號: Fle has been at great pains to gather up, and put together, the fragments of the Book, as it was when current in the Han dynasty. Wang Ming-shing, or Wang Kwang-luh(王光 祿), gives a much briefer edition of it in his 尚書後案,and arranges many of the sentences, moreover, differently. The fragments give us now in many passages but a farrago of absurdities. We may be sure that a Book containing such things never received the imprimatur of Coufucius : :——

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我鼓日召以事、天俱至發蒼受信發周維 孜州众自周可之來。于公升咒與先哉。拜公四 無課未來公以見0王成舟咒師公O手日月 高師

師知不書永此武屋日中總師功予稽都太 天乃天期報年以王流休流、余尚畢無首子 將稻命同話傳勸喜之哉。白象力知哉、發 有前未時,于于之諸為O魚店左賞以乃

立歌可不王 也大雕至入與罰、先 告 聞祭 災後伐謀王窮恐夫其于于黄以租司古于 母舞、維同動柔情皆色五主舟、定之徒先舉、 民極内詞色天之喜赤日,舟楫右臉有司哲下 之于午皆變。之0周其有王後把功 馬王 有上王日大正公釐火跪至白于臣 政天還受八律

自取者症先左 有下師、可百O古茂五上出動,以祖右諸 居。地前伐諸使立截至復滨號之小凡 O咸師矣侯上功茂以于以太日還。子齊太上。

日乃王不附立战穀下寮子蒼O予栗子0 In the fourth month, Fă, the eldest son and successor, went up and sacrificed at [or, to] Peih, and then proceeded to the neighbourhood of Măng-tsin.

The duke of Chow said, “Oh! exert yourself. I have heard the excellent words of the wise and ancient kings.” The prince Få bowed with his face to his hands, and his head to the ground.

He then addressed the minister of Instruction, the minister of War, and the minister of Works, with all the other appointed officers,—“Be reverent, firm, and sincere. I am without knowleilge, but I look to the virtuous ministers of iny fathers to help me, who am but a little child. I have received the achieved work of the dukes my predecessors, and will exert my strength in rewards and punishments, to accomplish whatever they have left undone." On this he put the host in motion. The grand Tutor, Father Shang, carrying in his right hand an axe yellow with gold, and in his left a white flag, to give out his orders, said, “The hoary wild bull! The hoary wild bull! Lead on all your multitudes. There are your boats and oars. The last come shall be beheaded!”

As the prince Fă had got to the middle of the stream in his boat, a white fish entered it. The king knelt down and took it up. He then went on the bank, and burned it, in sacrifice to Heaven. All the dukes said, “This is auspicious!”

On the fifth day there was a ball of fire which descended from above, till it came to the king's house, and there dissolved into a crow. Its colour was red; its voice was calm and decided ; five times it came bringing a stalk of grain. The king was glad, and all his officers also. The duke of Chow said, “Be strenuous! Be strenuous! Heaven has showed this to encourage vs. But let us trust in it with dread." Examining into antiquity, it is by accomplishing merit and accomplislıing business, that one can transmit his work to perpetual generations, and magnify the laws of Heaven.” They sent up this to be joined to the writing of the duke of Chow, and reported to the king, who was moved, and his countenance changed.

Eight hundred princes came of themselves without being called; they came at the same time without previous agreement; without consultation they all spoke to the same effect, saying, "Show may be attacked.” The king said, “You do not know the will of Heaven; it is not yet the time to attack him.” On the day ping-woo he accordingly withdrew his army. In front the host beat their druins and shouted. Some of the soldiers lowered their spears, and went through their exercise ; with songs in front and dancing behind, they made heaven and earth resound, while thay cried out, “Let us never be weary. Heaven is about to raise up a parent for us. The people will have gouel government and dwell quietly."


于獨有有君無月0既有蘸蘸上死行樂毁司 湯夫以命子皇照联自信而厥位附天乃壤馬 有約。亡證 村光響我兆弗先而上罰為其在 光。O上敬有 于協民夷菜。神不而最

我帝不顯予四底既人祇耐鼓聲、 正。

無章有O祥民余巧吾0聞再聲王乃 獎益為皇予我聽。有乃有 國不以父用 惟謂鑑惟克商O亂開命夷政可悦母其

我暴不予約必民十不居、而三婦弟姊 现有無遠,小非

人乃」 于周傷在子子


故斷 殘,受上彼無成文欲心發務事于下藥 殺之帝殷良惟王天同皇天上民而台其 伐大不王O展若必德夠亦帝者發,先 用帝。常,謂惡文從00縱鬼退上維祖于

張O九人乎考若之。天約之神在者襲之天、 The minister of War was in front. “Now, king Chow listens to the words of his woman ;-he has cut himself off from Heaven; he has destroyed and ruined all his hopes from heaven or earth or men. He has separated himself from his royal uncles and his maternal relatives. He has cast away the music of his forefathers, and by making dissolute melodies he has changed the correct melodies, to please his woman. On this account I, Fă, reverently proceed to execute the punishment determined by Heaven. Rouse ye, my heroes! Don't let us need a second effort, or a third. He who deceives those above him, in the interest of those below, dies ; he who deceives those below, in the interest of those above, is punished; he who takes counsel on the government of the kingdom, which is of no use to the people, has to retire; he who is in the highest position, and cannot advance the worthy, must be driven out.

“Chow abides squatting on his heels, and will not serve God or spirits. He has cast away, and will not sacrifice to, the spirits of his fathers. He says on the contrary,— The decree is mine;' and therefore he will not put forth his strength in the duties to them. Heaven allows him to take this course, having thrown him away, and no more preserving him. A mean man sees villainy and cunning, or hears it, without speaking :-his knowledge makes him as guilty as the villain.

Chow has hundreds of thousands and millions of ordinary men, but they are divided in their courses; I have ten able men who are one in heart and in course. Heaven sees as my people see, and hears as my people hear. My dreams agree with my divinations; the auspicious omen is double ;-my attack on Shang must succeed. King Wăn was like the sun or the moon. He lightened with his shining the four quarters,—the western regions. If I vanquish Chow, it will not be my prowess ;-it will be the faultlessness of my father Wăn. If Show vanquishes me, it will not be from any fault of my father Wăn, but because I am not good.

"Oh! when the superior man has illustrious virtue, his conduct is grandly displayed. There is a beacon not distant;-it is in that king of Yin. He says to men that the decree is his ; that reverence should not be practised; that sacrifice is of no advantage; that oppression does not matter. God is not constant, and the empire is passing from him. God is not allowing him, but sending down his ruin with a curse. Our House of Chow is receiving the empire from the great God. The solitary fellow Chow. Chow has hundreds and tens of thousands of ministers, who have hundreds and tens of thousands of hearts. King Woo bas three thousand ministers with one heart. My prowess is displayed; I invade his borders, and will take the tyrant, My punishment of evil will be exhibited more glorious than that of T'any."

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