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the morning; he cut out the heart of the worthy man.

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to wild idleness and irreverence. Heaven, and brought enmity between himself and the people. “He cut through the leg-bones of those who were wading in

He has cut himself off from

By the use

of his power killing and murdering, he has poisoned and sickened

all within the four seas.

His honour and confidence are given to

the villainous and bad. He has driven from him his instructors

and guardians. laws.

He has thrown to the winds the statutes and penal He has imprisoned and enslaved the upright officer.

He

neglects the sacrifices to Heaven and Earth. He has discontinued

the offerings in the ancestral temple.

He makes contrivances of

wonderful device and extraordinary cunning, to please his woman. —God will no longer indulge him, but with a curse is sending down

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Do ye support with untiring zeal me, the one

man, reverently to execute the punishment appointed by Heaven. 4 The ancients have said, ‘He who soothes us is our sovereign; he

who oppresses us is our enemy.'

This solitary fellow Show,

having exercised great tyranny, is your perpetual enemy. It is said again, ‘In planting a man's virtue, strive to make it great; in }'' away a man's wickedness, strive to do it from the root.’ Here I, who am a little child, by the powerful help of you, all my officers, will utterly exterminate your enemy. Do you, all my officers, march forwards with determined boldness, to sustain your

prince.

Where there is much merit, there shall be large reward.

Where you advance not so, there shall be conspicuous disgrace. “Oh! the virtue of my deceased father Wän was like the shining

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and influence of the sun and moon. His brightness extended over the four quarters of the empire, and shone signally in the western region. Hence it is that our Chow has received the allegiance of many States. If I subdue Show, it will not be my prowess, but the faultless virtue of my deceased father, Wän. If Show subdue me, it will not be from any fault of my deceased father Wän, but because I, who am a little child, am not good."

would all be Woo's own. 5. The greater hand. The ‘Daily Explanation, expanding his

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- - - - - - - reaching was the virtue of my father Wän:

,-I have translated this in the indicative the hearts of men cherished him, and the decree mood, as historical narrative. Such is the view of Heaven fell to him. Right it is that our ine . 4. House of Chow should receive the allegiance of of Gan-kwö who explains;— -E # %, the many regions, and possess the empire. I

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APPENDIX.

I annex here the “Great Declaration," as it appears in Kéang Shing's #4 ####. He has been at great pains to gather up, and put together, the fragments of the Book, as it was when current in the Han dynasty. Wang Ming-shing, or Wang Kwang-luh (HE X: jik), gives a much briefer edition of it in his fä H# ##, and arranges many of the sentences, moreover, differently. The fragments give us now in many passages but a farrago of absurdities. We may be sure that a Book containing such things never received the imprimatur of Confucius:

VOL. III. 38

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In the fourth month, Fä, the eldest son and successor, went up and sacrificed at [or, to] Peih, and then proceeded to the neighbourhood of Māng-tsin.

The duke of Chow said, “Oh! exert yourself. I have heard the excellent words of the wise and ancient kings.” The prince Fä bowed with his face to his hands, and his head to the ground.

He then addressed the minister of Instruction, the minister of War, and the minister of Works,

with all the other appointed officers,—“Be reverent, firm, and sincere. I am without knowledge, but I look to the virtuous ministers of my fathers to help me, who am but a little child. I have received the achieved work of the dukes my predecessors, and will exert my strength in rewards and punishments, to accomplish whatever they have left undone.” On this he put the host in motion. The grand Tutor, Father Shang, carrying in his right hand an axe yellow with gold, and in his left a white flag, to give out his orders, said, “The hoary wild bull! The hoary wild bull! Lead on all your multitudes. There are your boats and oars. The last come shall be beheaded !”

As the prince Fä had got to the middle of the stream in his boat, a white fish entered it. The king knelt down and took it up. He then went on the bank, and burned it, in sacrifice to Heaven. All the dukes said, “This is auspicious!”

On the fifth day there was a ball of fire which descended from above, till it came to the king's house, and there dissolved into a crow. Its colour was red; its voice was calm and decided; five times it came bringing a stalk of grain. The king was glad, and all his officers also. The duke of Chow said, “Be strenuous! Be strenuous! Heaven has showed this to encourage us. But let us trust in it with dread.” “Examining into antiquity, it is by accomplishing merit and accomplishing business, that one can transmit his work to perpetual generations, and magnify the laws of Heaven.” They sent up this to be joined to the writing of the duke of Chow, and reported to the king, who was moved, and his countenance changed.

Eight hundred princes came of themselves without being called; they came at the same time without previous agreement; without consultation they all spoke to the same effect, saying, “Show may be attacked.” The king said, “You do not know the will of Heaven; it is not yet the time to attack him.” On the day ping-woo he accordingly withdrew his army. In front the host beat their drums and shouted. Some of the soldiers lowered their spears, and went through their exercise; with songs in front and dancing behind, they made heaven and earth resound, while they cried out, “Let us never be weary. Heaven is about to raise up a parent for us. The people will have good government and dwell quietly.”

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The minister of War was in front. “Now, king Chow listens to the words of his woman;– he has cut himself off from Heaven; he has destroyed and ruined all his hopes from heaven or earth or men. He has separated himself from his royal uncles and his maternal relatives. He has cast away the music of his forefathers, and by making dissolute melodies he has changed the correct melodies, to please his woman. On this account I, Fá, reverently proceed to execute the punishment determined by Heaven. Rouse ye, my heroes! Don't let us need a second effort, or a third. He who deceives those above him, in the interest of those below, dies; he who deceives those below, in the interest of those above, is punished; he who takes counsel on the government of the kingdom, which is of no use to the people, has to retire; he who is in the highest position, and cannot advance the worthy, must be driven out. “Chow abides squatting on his heels, and will not serve God or spirits. He has cast away, and will not sacrifice to, the spirits of his fathers. He says on the contrary, -‘The decree is mine;’ and therefore he will not put forth his strength in the duties to them. Heaven allows him to take this course, having thrown him away, and no more preserving him. A mean man sees villainy and cunning, or hears it, without speaking:—his knowledge makes him as guilty as the villain. Chow has hundreds of thousands and millions of ordinary men, but they are divided in their courses; I have ten able men who are one in heart and in course. Heaven sees as my people see, and hears as my people hear. My dreams agree with my divinations; the auspicious omen is double;—my attack on Shang must succeed. King Wän was like the sun or the moon. He lightened with his shining the four quarters,—the western regions. If I vanquish Chow, it will not be my prowess;—it will be the faultlessness of my father Wän. If Show vanquishes me, it will not be from any fault of my father Wän, but because I am not good. “Oh! when the superior man has illustrious virtue, his conduct is grandly displayed. There is a beacon not distant;—it is in that king of Yin. He says to men that the decree is his; that reverence should not be practised; that sacrifice is of no advantage; that oppression does not matter. God is not constant, and the empire is passing from him. God is not allowing him, but sending down his ruin with a curse. Our House of Chow is receiving the empire from the great God. The solitary fellow Chow. Chow has hundreds and tens of thousands of ministers, who have hundreds and tens of thousands of hearts. King Woo has three thousand ministers with one heart. My prowess is displayed; I invade his borders, and will take the tyrant. My punishment of evil will be exhibited more glorious than that of T'ang.”

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