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天樂天辜朋人無日不o 乃弗惠籲家淫度不足我部 佑克民天

天作 酗播足聞 命若惟被棄今人 成天辟德智虐犁商為

流奉彰權臣老王不 降毒天聞相

聞相下昵受 受善 點下有o滅化比力 复國賓惟無之罪行惟



3 “I have heard that the good man, doing good, finds the day

insufficient, and that the evil man, doing evil, likewise finds the day insufficient. Now Show, the king of Shang, with strength pursues his lawless way. He has cast away the time-worn sires, and cultivates intiinacies with wicked men. Dissolute, intemperate, reckless, oppressive, his ministers have become assimilated to him; and they form parties, and contract animosities, and depend on the emperor's power to exterminate one another. The innocent cry to

Heaven. The odour of such a state is plainly felt on high. 4 “ Heaven loves the people, and the sovereign sliould reverence

this mind of Heaven. Këě, the sovereign of Hea, could not follow the example of Heaven, but sent forth his poisonous injuries through the States of the empire:—Heaven favoured and charged T'ang, the

P 3. The dreadful wickedness of Show. (charge to Yue p. 5;比, , as in the 'Instructions 吉人因人,一comp the use of 吉 and

of E,' p. 7. 朋家作一各立 in the Counsele of Fu. p. 5. Here, howerer, 朋黨互為仇雙 脅權一 we are to take the terms in their purely moral signification. This use of them shows the deep as in the 'Punitive Expedition of Yin,' conviction that goodness and prosperity, evil p. 6, = ft. 'to press,' 'to force.' The phrase and calamity, ought always to be found together. here='they make forcible use of–press upon 播藥犁老-conmp, in the Vis

;-comp. in the Vis-with-the power of the emperor.' 籲大 count of Weir p. 3. 毫遜于荒播-告天 or 呼天, apreal to Heaven. is here explained by tite, very nearly synony The 1--their filthy, fætid deeds.? mous with his most simply explained See on the . Pwan-kšng,' Pt. ii., p. 8.

Pp. 4, 5. Heaven will always overthrow wickby taking it as for 《 black and yellow,' the edness and tyranny :-illustrated in the case of colour of old men's faces. Mil-teze says of

Këě and T'ang, and now in that of Show, who was Chow that he is that where there is worse than Kët, and himself.

4. 惠-愛 probably intended for the character in the text ‘to love. 有夏柴 is not - there

ATE HET NATE (neih). as in the ya Ke of Hea, but 有夏之君柴


襲民王惟 有賊于命。 于 天不暴 天虐 绝o 休夢其遠

諫制惟 祥協以在傷祭 喪受 我联予彼厥無 元罪 商下又复靈 不已良浮


5 Successful, to make an end of the decree of Hea. But the crimes

of Show exceed those of Këě. He has stript and degraded the greatly good man; he has behaved with cruel tyranny to his reprover and helper. He says that his is the decree of Heaven; he says that a reverent care of his conduct is not worth observing; he says that sacrifice is of no use; he says that tyranny is no matter. The case for his inspection was not remote ;-in that king of Hea. It 4 would seem that Heaven is going by means of me to rule the people. My dreams coincide with my divinations; the auspicious oinen is double. My attack on Shang must succeed. Këč, the ruler who held Hea.' 流毒」暴無傷一無傷 ,-Bee Men. I., Pt., vii.'

下國一流毒于下國Howed out 8. 歌鑒云云,se the quotation his poison upon the lower States. Këě is con from the She King in Mencius, IV., Pt. I., ii., ceived of on the throne of the empire, as being 5. 天其以予义民,observe the raised on high, above his own and all the feudal domains. 降黜夏命一降

force of 其联夢協联下,襲 *to bring down and put away: Comp. the 于休祥商必克-We have no expression in the 55th note of the Preface,- hit other intimation of Woo's being encouraged in

a dream to act against Show ; his divination 王既黜殷命 5. 罪浮于

may have been before the shrine of his father, -2, comp. on the 'Pwan-kang,' Pt. ii., referred to in the last Part, p. 10. 3. Here it is evidently-勝 or 過,to | 重, double,"repeated. 襲于休祥 ** TR :-*1) “to tear," | - both agree in being auspicious,'

'to attack with weapons.' to peel,' – 'to degrade'; is #fit, 'to pon, here lose one's office,' used, here in a hiphil sense. It

to the interpretation thus indicated, which is is supposed that this clause has reference to after Ts'ae, the omens were only two, which the viscount of Wei, whose withdrawal from united in being favourable. In the violence and oppression on the part of Show. however, H T, the passage is quoted, The next clause, - , where the speaker is treating of the agreement

of three omens, and he adds to the passage-is referred to Pe-kan. 謂已有天

以三襲也,On this view, 襲于休 命, , -see the Conquest of Le,' p. 5.

祥='agree with the 休祥,whatever this #TETT,- reverence is not worth being was. Lin Che-kte, adopting this construction, practised. We had better understand the 're refers to the 24th chap. of the Doctrine of the verence' with reference to his own conduct, and Mean,' where it is said that when a nation or a to the busines of the State,祭無益一 family is about to flourish, there will be me, this was the cry of the wicked Jews in the seen in the milfoil and tortoise, &c. There, a time of Malachi,-' It is vain to serve God.' | substantive meaning may be given to those two


「A a wea


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姓自我人周六亂心億必 有我民 民0 親同臣離兆克。 過民視 見天不德

不德士德夷 在聽天視如雖人人爱 予百聽自仁有同有離有

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6 “Show has hundreds of thousands and millions of ordinary

men, divided in heart and divided in practice;—I have of ministers capable of government ten men, one in heart and one in practice.

Although he has his nearest relatives with him, they are not like 7 my virtuous men. Heaven sees as my people see; Heaven hears as

my people hear. The people are blaming me, the one man, for my characters, as to # TE here, -namely the P.7. The will of Heaven might be seen from

the earnest wish of the people that he should destroy occurrence of certain unusual phenomena ;-see Ying-tă on the passage of the The

Shou. 天視...民聽一se Men, Y, Pt. editors of Yung-ching's Shoo seem on the whole I.

, v., 8. It would not be easy to determine

the exact meaning of the term 'Heaven' here. inclined to favour this view,

The attention of Choo He being called to the P. 6. The greater number of Show's host and applicability of the definition of Heaven az adherents was no cause for doubt as to the issue. meaning “Reason,'orówhat is Reasonable’here,

“ What is See on the bth par. of last Part. - Reasonable", but it does not mean that only. 夷=平常,common, ordinary men. F It means also “ the azure vault” **** 有亂臣十人,一ue Con, Ana, VIL., 亦是天); and it means to the Lond and

周親一周一至, the superlative | Ruler who is above”在上而有主 adverth, most. The phrase 周親, and the | 宰者亦是天). The term is to be whole clause indeed, are difficult. The para- explained in every place by a consideration of phrase of the 'Daily Explanation’is:

-T the context. It here, you say that it means 親信者雖有同姓至親然」 hears Although the explanation are liferent,

there yet is something common in all the 皆因人醜類同恶相簿我 | usages. If you know that, you will not be Z FEWME # them, you will see that they are not inconsis戚然皆是仁厚有德之人

tent with the common idea.'-See the THI, · Although those in quoted in the # 百姓有過, wliom Show re poses his most intimate confidence #F-1.-Lin Che-k'e takes these

words as equivalent to those in the 'Anwith himself, yet they are all bad men and detestable

, helping him and one another in their nouncement of Tiang,' p. 7, to ti , common wickedness My ten ministers, on the #F-\; and most readers will feel erous, fit to rule a country and benefit the age' be dietinguished, however, from T., and the relatives, are virtuous men, benevolent and gen- inclined at first to agree with him b is to

[Confucius said that there was a woman sentiment appropriate to the lips of T'ang, who among Woo's ten able ministers; ;-see the Ana,, had vanquished his rival, is not to be expected loc cit. She is generally spoken of as * from Woo, who

was only marching to the fight. “ ·mother W&n,' king Woo's mother, the famous Gan-kwð, as if he had 'Tiang's words before 太姻. Othere think Woo mite 邑姜

him, and yet felt the difference between the must be intended. It is not easy to believe and T, interpreted—'It devolves on me, the

one man, to teach the people, and correct their


are his nearest relatives of the same surname


定呼懷 用疆、



世。立鳴姓無 1伐

伐之 O


dage, og 8 delay ;-I must now go forward. My military prowess is displayed,

and I enter his territories, to take the wicked tyrant. My punishment 9 of evil will be shown more glorious than that of T'ang. Rouse ye,

my heroes! Do not think that he is not to be feared ;—better think that he cannot be withstood. His people stand in trembling awe of him, as if the horns were falling from their heads. Oh! unite your energies, unite your hearts ;---so shall you forthwith surely accomplish the work to last for all ages. errors. But this idea is foreign to the occasion. P. 9. He rouses his men to prepare for the Te-ae's explanation of it by 'fault- fight with stern determination, not undervaluing finding,''complaining of,' is very ingenious, and their enemy, but rather overvaluing him. A sound.

See the Con. Ana., xx., i., 5, where good part of this paragraph is also found in also we have the conclusion of the last para- Mencius ;-see VII., Pt. II., iv. 5. His variagraph,

P. 8. The present enterprise was not less but tions from the present text are, however, greater, more glorious than that of T'ang.


and affect the meaning of the several parts of the paragraph as quoted by Mencius, Bk. III., the par. How to account for the differences is Pt. II., V., 6. It will be seen to be rhythmical, a difficult question. To say that our present and this may account for the difficulty which

Old Text' is a forgery, is an absurd solution ; we find in construing it. 侵于之疆-the true solution has yet to be found. =侵入受之疆界, I invade and 夫子'my masters' here='my heroes. enter the boundaries of Show's domain.' 于 因或無畏,非敵 湯有光,一T

一Tyrae makes this on and this | 無或以約為不足畏,執 mind in attacking Kee more"clear. mase thie # For the t, as in the editors of Yung-ching's Shoo say, this is too translation. 百姓懷懷-the people are ingenious. Ts'ae wanted to relieve Woo of a portion of the charge of boastfulness, which is understood to be those of Show's domain, and

The urged against the language of this Book ; but the parts of the empire in the east. foreign students of Chinese history do not feel

next clause represents them as a flock of cattle, the pressure of such a charge. We are content whose horns were being broken. 立定 to take king Woo as we find him, and a ter not the 55,-the I is best taken adverbially, down to the Chinese idea of a sage.

= 'forthwith.'



押 彰顯土日誓大時

商 厥字呼士六明。



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1 The time was on the morrow, when the king went round

his six hosts in state, and made a clear declaration to all his
2 officers. He said, “Oh! my valiant men of the west, Heaven has

enjoined the illustrious courses of duty, of which the several characters
are quite plain. And now Show, the king of Shang treats with con-
temptuous slight the five constant virtues, and abandons himself

CONTENTS OF THE THIRD Part. On the day go round and cheer, while the former conveys the
after addressing the troops as in the last Part, ideas of marshalling and warning. This is very
Woo had a grand review of all the hosts, and

declared his sentiments more particularly to

Bit is used, like I, through-
the officers. He sets forth, as before, the crimes out the Book, by anticipation. According to
of Show against God and men, as sufficiently the subsequent statutes of the Chow dyn., the im-
justifying their enterprise, and urges the officers perial forces consisted of six armies or brigades,
to support him with all their energies that he while those of a great State were only three. In
might do his work thoroughly, and utterly reality the hosts now collected on the banks
destroy the tyrant. Having set before them i of the Ho were an imperial force, and so they
the prospect of rewards and punishments, he are denominated the six hosts.' 明誓
concludes with a humble but encouraging re-
ference, to his father Wăn.

象士一象士, all the officers-Gan-
P. 1. The time and occasion of the Declaration, kw says they were all ‘from centurions up-
with the parties addressed. The day was that wards.'
immediately following that on which the last P. 2. Thut Show, violating the laws of Heaven,
address was delivered, -the Ke-wei day the had set both Heaven and men against him.
calendar. It is supposed that the army was 西土君子princely! men of the western
dow about to march to meet or seek the enemy.
大巡大師一大巡,“vent greatly | regione'君子i appropriate as addreased

to the officers, though Lin Che-k'e shows that
about. Lew Ying-ts'ew ( HE TA) says it might be employed also to designate the com-
that ** differs from Phi, the latter meaning to mon soldiers. 天有顯道,厥類

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