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insufficient. Now Show, the kin his lawless way. cultivates intimacies with

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, # man, doing good, finds the day doing evil, likewise finds the day

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g of Shang, with strength pursues He has cast away the time-worn sires, and

wicked men.

Dissolute, intemperate,

reckless, oppressive, his ministers have become assimilated to him; and they form parties, and contract animosities, and depend on the

emperor's power to exterminate one another.

Heaven.

this mind of Heaven.

The innocent cry to

The odour of such a state is plainly felt on high. “Heaven loves the people, and the sovereign should reverence Kéé, the sovereign of Hea, could not follow

the example of Heaven, but sent forth his poisonous injuries through the States of the empire:—Heaven favoured and charged T'ang, the

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He has stript and degraded the

greatly good man; he has behaved with cruel tyranny to his reprover and helper. He says that his is the decree of Heaven; he says that a reverent care of his conduct is not worth observing; he says

that sacrifice is of no use; he says that tyranny is no matter.

The

case for his inspection was not remote;—in that king of Hea. It would seem that Heaven is going by means of me to rule the people. . . My dreams coincide with my divinations; the auspicious omen is

double.

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My attack on Shang must succeed.

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family is about to flourish, there will be Mišjiš,

seen in the milfoil and tortoise, &c. There, a
substantive meaning may be given to those two

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7 my virtuous men. Heaven sees as my people see; Heaven hears as

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“Show has hundreds of thousands and millions of ordinary men, divided in heart and divided in practice;—I have of ministers

capable of government ten men,

one in heart and one in practice.

Although he has his nearest relatives with him, they are not like

my people hear. The people are
characters, as to Aft ji: here,—namely the
occurrence of certain unusual phenomena;-see
Ying-tä on the passage of the H - The
editors of Yung-ching's Shoo seem on the whole
inclined to favour this view.
P. 6. The greater number of Show's host and
adherents was no cause for doubt as to the issue.

See on the 8th par. of last Part. # A

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blaming me, the one man, for my

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* * * *

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8 delay;—I must now go forward. My military prowess is displayed, and I enter his territories, to take the wicked tyrant. My punishment

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of evil will be shown more glorious than that of T'ang. Do not think that he is not to be feared;—better think

my heroes!

Rouse ye,

that he cannot be withstood. His people stand in trembling awe

of him, as if the horns were falling from their heads.

Oh! unite

your energies, unite your hearts;—so shall you forthwith surely accomplish the work to last for all ages.”

errors. But this idea is foreign to the occasion. Ts'ae's explanation of # by #, ‘faultJinding, “complaining of, is very ingenious, and sound. See the Con. Ana., xx., i., 5, where also we have the conclusion of the last paragraph. P. 8. The present enterprise was not less but more glorious #. that of T'ang. Compare the paragraph as quoted by Mencius, Bk. III., Pt. II., v., 6. It will be seen to be rhythmical, and this may account for the difficulty which

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enter the boundaries of Show's domain.” w #–Ts'ae makes this to e-" and this will reflect light on T'ang, i.e., will make his mind in attacking Kéć more clear. As the editors of Yung-ching's Shoo say, this is too ingenious. Ts'ae wanted to relieve Woo of a portion of the charge of boastfulness, which is urged against the language of this Book; but foreign students of Chinese history do not feel the pressure of such a charge. We are content to take king Woo as we find him, and are not concerned to bring his character either up or down to the Chinese idea of a sage.

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The time was on the morrow, when the king went round his six hosts in state, and made a clear declaration to all his

officers.

He said, “Oh! my valiant men of the west, Heaven has

enjoined the illustrious courses of duty, of which the several characters

are quite plain.

And now Show, the king of Shang treats with con

temptuous slight the five constant virtues, and abandons himself

CoNTENTs of THE THIRD PART. On the day after addressing the troops as in the last Part, Woo had a grand review of all the hosts, and declared his sentiments more particularly to the officers. He sets forth, as before, the crimes of Show against God and men, as sufficiently justifying their enterprise, and urges the officers to support him with all their energies that he might do his work thoroughly, and utterly destroy the tyrant. Having set before them the prospect of rewards and punishments, he concludes with a humble but encouraging reference, to his father Wän.

P. 1. The time and occasion of the Declaration, with the parties addressed. The day was that immediately following that on which the last address was delivered,—the Ke-wei day of the calendar. It is supposed that the army was now about to march to meet or seek the enemy.

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