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the myriad people.

He has ripped up pregnant women.

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He has burned and roasted the loyal and good.

Great Heaven was moved

with indignation, and charged my deceased father Wän reverently to display its majesty; but he died before the work was completed. “On this account I, Fä, who am but a little child, have by

means of you, the hereditary rulers of m templated the government of Shang; but

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friendly States, conhow has no repentant

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J% #......+ #j—# E is explained by a reference to the same phrase in the “Both possessed pure Virtue, p. 10. The princes of the States were to Woo an index of the govt. of Chow. Had they remained loyal to him, that would have shown that his govt. was good. As they were now in the mass revolted from him, and following Woo's banner, it was clear that he was no longer fit to be emperor. Such is the explanation of this passage by Ts'ae, and what is now commonly received; and I see no better course than to acquiesce in it. Gan-kw8 and the earlier scholars explained it with reference to an assembly, which they imagined, of Woo and the princes at the ford of Tsin, two years before the period of this ‘Declaration.’ Then he had thoughts of attacking Chow, but on contemplating his govt, concluded that the time was not yet come, and withdrew his troops.

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heart.

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He abides squatting on his heels, not serving God or the

spirits of heaven and earth, neglecting also the temple of his

ancestors, and not sacrificing in it. of wicked robbers; and still he says,

millet all become the '.

The victims and the vessels of

‘The people are mine: the decree is mine, never trying to correct his contemptuous mind. Now Heaven, to protect the inferior people, made for them rulers, and made for them instructors, that they might be able to be aiding to God, and secure the tranquillity of the four quarters of the empire. In regard to who are criminals and who are not, how dare I give any allowance to my own wishes?

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P. 7. He returns to the principles declared in par. 3, and shows that he was constrained by them to attack Chow. See this par. as it is quoted by Mencius, I., Bk. II., iii., 7. The difference between the text here, and that which he gives is very considerable. We cannot suppose that the present text of the Shoo was forged from Mencius. A plagiarist, attempting such an imposition as is ascribed to ‘the false K'ung,” would have taken the language exactly from his copy. We can only believe that Mencius had a copy of the ‘Great Declaration’ before him, differing not a little from the present, or that he quoted from memory, and allowed himself great license in altering the classic.

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9 ministers, but they have one mind. Heaven gives command to destroy it.

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10

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“‘Where the strength is the same, measure the virtue of the parties;

where the virtue is the same, measure their righteousness.'

Show

has hundreds of thousands and myriads of ministers, but they have hundreds of thousands and myriads of minds; I have three thousand

Heaven, my iniquity would be as

hensions.

f “I, who am a little child, early and late am filled with ap

The iniquity of Shang is full. If I did not comply with great.

pre

I have received charge from my deceased father Wän; I

have offered special sacrifice to God; I have performed the due services to the great Earth;—and I lead the multitude of you to

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sionates the people.
to give effect to.
all within the four seas.

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11 execute the punishment appointed by Heaven.

Heaven compas

What the people desire, Heaven will be found Do you aid me, the one man, to cleanse for ever Now is the time!—it may not be lost.”

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When all the chiefs with their hosts were assembled, the king re-
viewed the hosts, and made the following declaration, saying, “Ah!

ye multitudes of the West, listen

CONTENTS OF THE SECOND PART. Since the
delivery of the first address, the army has
crossed the Ho, when Woo reviews it, and
makes this speech, which is more especially
addressed to the troops. He makes Show and
Kēē, T'ang and himself, all pass before his men,
showing that Show was more wicked than Kéé,
and that his punishment of him would be more
glorious than T'ang's had been of Kéé. Heaven
will surely crown their enterprise with success;
and he therefore in conclusion urges them all
to go into battle, not despising the tyrant, but
with united hand and heart, to accomplish a
work that should last for ages. The whole is
divided into 9 paragraphs.

Pp. 1, 2. The time, place, and occasion of the
address; and the parties addressed. The time
was the day mow-woo, which we are able to
determine, from the 1st par. of the ‘Completion
of the War, to have been the 28th day of the 1st
month. We are there told that Woo began his
march to attack Chow on the day jin-shin,
which was the 2d of the 1st month. Calculating
on to the day mow-woo, we ascertain that it
was the 28th of the same moon. The con-
troversy, described on the 1st par. of the
last Part, on the term “spring, however, is not

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