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of man penetrates ; wherever the heavens overshadow and the earth sustains ; wherever the sun and moon shine; wherever frosts and dews fall : all who have blood and breath unfeignedly honor and love him. Hence it is said, “He is the equal of heaven.”

It is only the individual possessed of the most entire sincerity that can exist under heaven, who can adjust the great invariable relations of mankind, establish the great fundamental virtues of humanity, and know the transforming and nurturing operations of Heaven and Earth : shall this individual have any being or anything beyond himself on which he depends ?

Call him man in his ideal, how earnest is he! Call him an abyss, how deep is he! Call him heaven, how vast is he!

Who can know him but he who is indeed quick in apprehension, clear in discernment, of far-reaching intelligence, and all-embracing knowledge, possessing all heavenly virtue ?

CHAPTER III.

STANDARD RULES FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF THE EMPIRE.

“All who have the government of the empire with its States and families, have nine standard rules to follow, viz : the cultivation of their own characters; the honoring of men of virtue and talents ; affection towards their relatives ; respect toward the great ministers; kind and considerate treatment of the whole body of officers; dealing with the mass of the people as children ; encouraging the resort of all classes of artisans ; indulgent treatment of men from a distance; and the kindly cherishing of the princes of the State.

“ By the ruler's cultivation of his own character, the duties of universal obligation are set forth. By honoring men of virtue and talents, he is preserved from errors of judgment. By showing affection to his relatives, there is no grumbling nor resentment among his uncles and brethren. By respecting the great ministers, he is kept from errors in the practice of government. By kind and considerate treatment of the whole body of officers, they are led to make the most grateful return for his courtesies. By dealing with the mass of the people as his children, they

are led to exhort one another to what is good. By encouraging the resort of all classes of artisans, his resources for expenditure are rendered ample. By indulgent treatment of men from a distance, they are brought to resort to him from all quarters. And by kindly cherishing the princes of the State, the whole empire is brought to revere him.

“Self-adjustment and purification, with careful regulation of his dress, and the not making a movement contrary to the rules of propriety : this is the way for the ruler to cultivate his person. Discarding slanderers, and keeping himself from the seductions of beauty ; making light of riches, and giving honor to virtue : this is the way for him to encourage men of worth and talents. Giving them places of honor, and large emoluments, and sharing with them in their likes and dislikes : this is the way for him to encourage his relatives to love him. Giving them numerous officers to discharge their orders and commissions : this is the way for him to encourage the great ministers. According to them a generous confidence, and making their emoluments large : this is the way to encourage the body of officers. Employing them only at the proper times, and making the imposts light: this is the way to encourage the people. By daily examinations and monthly trials, and by making their rations in accordance with their labors : this is the way to encourage the classes of artisans. To escort them on their departure, and meet them on their coming ; to commend the good among them, and show compassion to the incompetent : this is the way to treat indulgently men from a distance. To restore families whose line of succession has been broken, and to revive States that have been ex

tinguished ; to reduce to order States that are in confusion, and support those which are in peril : to have fixed times for their own receptior, at court, and the reception of their envoys; to send them away after liberal treatment, and welcome their coming with small contributions : this is the way to cherish the princes of the States."

CHAPTER IV.

RELIGION.

FILIAL SERVICE DUE TO THE DEAD AS TO THE LIVING.

The Master said, “How far extending was the filial piety of king Woo and the duke of Chow!

Now, filial piety is seen in the skillful carrying out of the wishes of our forefathers, and the skillful carrying forward of their undertakings.

“In spring and autumn, they repaired and beautified the temple-halls of their fathers, set forth their ancestral vessels, displayed their various robes, and presented the offerings of the several seasons.

By means of the ceremonies of the ancestral temple, they distinguished the imperial kindred according to their order of descent.

“They occupied the places of their forefathers, practiced their ceremonies, and performed their music. They reverenced those whom they honored, and loved those whom they regarded with affection. Thus they served the dead as they would have served them alive ; they

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