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EXAMPLES OF WELL GOVERNED STATES.

Tsze-chang asked Confucius, saying, “In what way should a person in authority act in order that he may conduct government properly?” The Master replied, “ Let him honor the five excellent, and banish away the four bad things; then may he conduct government properly.” Tsze-chang said, “What are meant by the five excellent things?” The Master said, “When the person in authority is beneficent without great expenditure ; when he lays tasks on the people without their repining; when he pursues what he desires without being covetous; when he maintains a dignified ease without being proud; when he is majestic without being fierce."

Tsze-chang said, “What is meant by being beneficent without great expenditure?” The Master replied, “When the person in authority makes more beneficial to the people the things from which they naturally derive benefit; is not this being beneficent without great expenditure ? When he chooses the laborers which are proper, and makes them labor on them, who will repine? When his desires are set on benevolent government, and he realizes it, who will accuse him of covetousness ? Whether he has to do with many people or few, or with things great or small, he does not dare to indicate any disrespect; is not this to maintain a dignified ease without any pride? He adjusts his clothes and cap, and throws a dignity into his looks, so that, thus dignified, he is looked at with awe; is not this to be majestic without being fierce ?"

Tsze-chang then asked, “What are meant by the four bad things?” The Master said, “ To put the people to

death without having instructed them ; this is called cruelty. To require from them suddenly the full tale of work, without having given them warning; this is called oppression. To issue orders as if without urgency at first, and, when the time comes, to insist on them with severity; this is called injury. And, generally speaking, to give pay or rewards to men, and yet to do it in a stingy way; this is called acting whe part of a inere official.”

CHAPTER VI.

MAXIMS.

The Master said, “Things that are done, it is needless to speak about; things that have had their course, it is needless to remonstrate about; things that are past, it is needless to blame."

“ When we see men of worth, we should think of equaling them ; when we see men of a contrary character, we should turn inwards and examine ourselves.”

Tsze-loo said, “If you had the conduct of the armies of a great State, whom would you have to act with you?"

The Master said, “I would not have him to act with me, who will unarmed attack a tiger, or cross a river without a boat, dying without any regret. My associate must be the man who proceeds to action full of solicitude, who is fond of adjusting his plans, and then carries them into execution.”

“The people may be made to follow a path of action, but they may not be made to understand it.”

“The man who is fond of daring and is dissatisfied with poverty, will proceed to insubordination. So will the man who is not virtuous, when you carry your dislike of him to an extreme."

Though a man have abilities as admirable as those

of the duke of Chow, yet if he be proud and niggardly, those other things are really not worth being looked at.

“He who is not in any particular office, has nothing to do with plans for the administration of its duties."*

“ The wise are free from perplexities; the virtuous from anxiety; and the bold from fear."

“ Do not be desirous to have things done quickly; do not look at small advantages. Desire to have things done quickly prevents their being done thoroughly. Looking at small advantages prevents great affairs from being accomplished."

Tsze-Kung asked, saying, “What do you say of a man who is loved by all the people of his village ?” The Master replied, “We may not for that accord our approval of him.” "And what do you say of him who is hated by all the people of his village?” The Master said, co

not for that conclude that he is bad. It is better than either of these cases that the good in the village love him, and the bad hate him.”+

The Master said, “To lead an uninstructed people to war, is to throw them away."

"To be poor without murmuring is difficult. To be rich without being proud is easy."

“He who speaks without modesty will find it difficult to make his words good.”

“ If a man take no thought about what is distant, he will find sorrow near at hand.”

“He who requires much from himself and little from

We may

Every man should mind his own business. † To judge of a man from the likings and dislikings of others, we must know the character of those others.

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others, will keep himself from being the object of resentment.”

“ When the multitude hate a man, it is necessary to examine into the case. When the multitude like a man, it is necessary to examine into the case.”

“To have faults and not to reform them—this, indeed, should be pronounced having faults.”

“Those whose courses are different cannot lay plans for one another."

“Why use an ox-knife to kill a fowl?” (Disproportioned effort.)

“ It is according to the rules of propriety,' they say. It is according to the rules of propriety' they say: Are gems and silk, all that is meant by propriety? 'It is Music,' they say. 'It is Music,' they say: Are bells and drums, all that is meant by music? "*

“When a man at forty is the object of dislike, he will always continue what he is.”

“ The mean man is sure to gloss his faults.

“When you have found out the truth of any accusation, be grieved for and pity them, and do not feel joy at your own ability.

“The superior man hates to dwell in a low lying situation, where all the evil of the world will flow in upon him.”+

“For one word, a man is often deemed to be wise, and

* It is not the external appurtenances which constitute propriety; nor the sound of instruments, which constitutes music.

p" A low lying situation,” to which the streams flow and waters drain, representing here a bad reputation, which gets the credit of

every vice,

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