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來荀侯测公侯冬來朱院 聘驚使晉來孫使衛朝。子

繼諸冬九侵秋,陳晉是伐夏音。人者城稱宋左 好侯衛月宋楚晉師東鄭五 以歸,降来,

路宋地傳 結即子朱取子侯自諸入月, 為賓晉,且追日 信位叔子大辛衛鄭、侯其音 討論 晉不 不書元 謀小晉來丘救 侯以 以之郭韓

人 登也年, 事國知朝。 鄭次師敗厥, 月丘以

以叛於春 補朝 禮 侵於之次其韵 齊宋 關之 也。 宋成師于徒偃, 禮大來 民以 部兵帥 之國聘。

蹈。為
於諸

夫之 大聘禮 鄭之焦 消侯 彭在 魚 者 焉,也。 子接夷音上之 質城彭志。石城 也。以凡

及師於師, 於晉城彭故非 I. 1 In his first year, in spring, in the king's first month, the

duke came to the (vacant] seat. 2 Chung-sun Mëeh joined Lwan Yin of Tsin, Hwa Yuen of

Sung, Ning Chih of Wei, an officer of Ts-aou, an officer of Keu, an officer of Choo, an officer of Trăng, and an

officer of Sëeh, in besieging Pång-shing in Sung. 3 In summer, Han Keueh of Tsin led an army, and invaded

Ch'ing. Chung-sun Mëeh joined Ts'uy Ch‘oo of Ts'e, an officer of Ts'aou, an officer of Choo, and an officer of

K'e, and halted, (with their forces], in Tsăng. 4 In autumn, the Kung-tsze Jin-foo of Ts'oo led a force, and

malle an incursion into Sung. 5 In the ninth montli, on Sin-yëw, the king [hy] Heaven's

[grace] died. 6 The viscount of Choo came to Loo on a court-visit. 7 In winter, the marquis of Wei sent the Kung-sun P'ëaou to

Loo on a visit of friendly inquiries. So did the marquis

of Tsin send Sëun Ying. TITLE OF THIA Book.-襄公, Duke Seang' Sëang's 1st year synchronized with the 14th Duke Sëang's name was Woo (午) of king Keen(簡王); the 1st of Taou (悼) the son of duke Ch'ing, and as we learn from of Tsin; the 10th of Ling () of Ts'e; the 5th the Chuen after IX. 6, at the time of his acces. sion was only 4 years old. His mother was not of Hëen (Sk) of Wei ; the 20th of King of Chring we have an account in his 14th year, but Ts'ae; the 13th of Ch'ing (11) of Ch‘ing; the of a Sze (HCl), a lady of K'e, whose death ap

6th of Ch‘ing (it) of Ts'aou; the 27th of Ch'ing His posthumous title 6th of Ch‘ing (11) pears in the 4th year. Sëang denotes—' Successful in his conduct of of Ch.in; the 65th of Hwan of K'e; the 4th of Ping affair (因事有功日襄): (平) of Sung; the sth of King(景 of Tsin;

He was

the 19th of Kung (#) of Ts'on; and the 14th it necessary to maintain its grasp of it with the

forces of the other States was not the strength of Show-nung of Woo ().

of Ch'ing, but the fear of Ts‘oo. Had there Par. 1. See on VIII. i. i ; et al.

been no Tsóvo to come to the help of Ch‘ing, Par. 2. The Chuen says:- This year, in Tsin might have penetrated to its outer suburbs spring, on Ke-hae, there was the siege of Pang- | with a small force. The manner in which it shing. It did not now belong to Sung;-the now took its measures in reference to Ch‘ing text calls it Sung's retrospectively. At this may be pronounced prudent and skilful. With time (the States] were punishing Yu Shih for

Han Keueh alone attacking the capital of Ch'ing Sung, and therefore the city is called Sung's, in front, and the soldiers of the five States and moreover the text would not sanction the ready to succour him in the rear, if the forces

of Ts'oo did not come forth, the single Han exaltation of a rebel. The language has respect Keueh was abundantly able to take the city; to the wishes of Sung (in the matter).

if they did come forth, the armies of the five Pång-shing surrendered to Tsin, and the States were sufficient to fight them without people of Tsin took the five great officers of fear. These arrangements showed the care Sung who were in it back with them, and placed with which Tsin made use of the other States, them in Hoo-k‘ëw. The troops of Ts'e were and did not lightly expose their people in batnot present at [the siege of] Pång-shing, which tle. Therefore the sage by the terms “inTsin thought was a ground for punishing [that vaded” and “halted” indicated his admiration State), and in the 2d month the eldest son of of its measures in dealing with the offending [the marquis of] Ts'e became a hostage in Tsin.' Ch'ing. Expositors, regarding only the state

ment in the next paragraplı, that an army of According to Tso-she's own remarks in the Ts'oo made an incursion into Sung, say that the above Chuen, the # before the in this states halted at Tsång to save Sung. But it par. is Confucius' own,-an instance not of his

was not till the autumn that Ts'oo made that pruning, but of bis correcting pencil. But the incursion ;-how should the States have halted reasons for his view are very shadowy. Ts‘oo here beforehand with a view to save Sung? had not taken Păng-shing from Sung, and ap- Such a view shows no consideration of the order propriated it to itself. King Kung had indeed of the paragraphs. Moreover, Tsăng was in the placed Yu Shih in it, as a thorn in the side of territory of Ch‘ing ;-would they have halted in Sung, and had supplied him with a force to en- Ch'ing to save Sung ?' able him to maintain his position, but he had

Par. 4. The Chuen says:—'In autumn, Tszenot made him its ruler with the title of baron,

sin of Ts'oo went to succour Ch‘ing, and made

an incursion on Leu and Lëw of Sung. Tsze-jen or viscount, or any higher dignity. Nothing of Ch'ing made an incursion into Sung, and had occurred which should make the historio- | took K'euen-k'ëw.' graphers not speak of the city as Sung's.

Por. 5. This was king Këen (). He was Par. 3. Tsăng was a city of Ch‘ing,-in the pres. Suy Chow, dep. Kwei-tih. It must not

succeeded by his son, king Ling (i be confounded with the State of Tsăng, V. xiv.

Par. 6. Tso-she says this visit was 'proper,' 2; et al. For lith Kung-yang has E, and for

—to congratulate, I suppose, the child-marquis

on his accession. 部合

Par. 7. The Chuen says :-In winter TszeThe Chuen says:—'In summer, in the 5th shuh of Wei, and Che Woo-tsze of Tsin, came month, Han Keueh and Seun Yen of Tsin

to Loo, with friendly inquiries; which was invaded Ch‘ing, with the forces of [several of] proper. On the accession of any prince, smaller the States, and entered its outer suburbs. They States appeared [by their princes) at his court, defeated its infantry near the Wei. At this and larger ones sent friendly missions ;-for the time the armies of the [other] States were halt- continuance of their friendship, and cementing ing at Tsăng, waiting for the army of Tsin. their good faith, to take counsel on affairs, and When that came from Ch'ing, it made a junction

to repair deficiencies. These were the greatest with them, and made an incursion into Tsëaou-e

of ceremonies.' of Ts'oo, and into Ch'in. The marquis of Tsin and the marquis of Wei remained in Ts'eih, to

These courtesies to Loo, it must be supposed, render any aid that might be needed.'

were sent before the States had heard the news Chaou Páng-fei says on this paragraph :- of the king's death, because after such an event "Tsin, as chief among the States, invaded there was an intermission for a time of those Ch‘ing many times. The reason why it thought observances.

一章

四章

五章

year. Second

[graphic]

年春王正月葬簡王

師伐宋夏五月庚寅夫人姜氏薦
六月庚辰鄭伯畸恋
曾師宋師篇帶殖侵
七月伸會

孫茂晉荀鉴宋華元篇孫林父曹人郝人于
己丑葬我小君濟姜
叔孫豹如宋
冬仲孫蔑會晉荀瑩齊崔杼宋華元篇孫林父曹人知人

薛 小邦人于戒遂城虎牢 其大夫公子申

九章

子楚成冬穆齊請今會於之郭

今會於之鄭為逆夏 申,公 復叔侯 不于是是成不婦齊

會聘使告來成子乘公哲養姜為

諸吾矣謀罕力疾 矣, 姑藥靈 為 宋姜子滕鄭當與子且者初也。

者初也萊年,
齊通宗之薛故國言,姜也穆 萊春,
崔嗣婦功小也。子其請氏虧姜 人鄭
武君來也、朱孟廟誰息君姑使 使師
子也。送若之獻為赔肩之以擇

葬。不不子政我於她成美
召得至日子免晉也婦,價,
萊請皆請國賓公詩道以
子事齊城為人日日莫自
葉將故虎司唯楚為大為
子在也牢馬。二君酒焉,

椒、
不齊,寬以晉 以爲詩與
會吾君偏師子。鄭體日領
子之鄭俊秋、故悉其琴、
褒知鄭七親男惟季
武語月集祖哲文

大虎矢姚人,子
日夫

夫辰於以 善,欲鄭其 將從伯

也復之晉。非禮言君 之於會、子卒異降順子 惟寬

人 日、 寡君子 任孔之非 君而開 冥偕行禮

請崔命 人 季也
之於子未 也 孫禮

齊之改。 若 於無
得言

是所 II. 1 In the [duke's] second year, in spring, in the king's first

month, there was the burial of king Këen. 2 An army of Ch‘ing invaded Sung. 3 In suminer, in the fifth month, on Kăng-yin, [duke Ch‘ing's]

wife, the lady Këang, died. 4. In the sixth month, on Kăng-shin, Kwăn, earl of Ch'ing,

died. . 5 An arıny of Tsin, an army of Surg, and Ning Chih of Wei,

made an incursion into Ch'ing.

楚公子申為右司馬多受小國之路以偏子重子辛楚人殺之故書日楚殺其大夫公

冬復會于戒齊崔武子及膝薛小知之大夫皆會知武子之言故也遂城虎牢鄭人乃

左傳日二年春鄭師侵宋楚令也 GO齊侯伐萊萊人使正興子路风沙衛以来馬牛皆百匹齊師乃還君子是以知齊靈

故县弱城東陽以偏之

百話葬。

6 In autumn, in the seventh month, Chung-sun Mëeh had

a meeting with Sëun Ying of Tsin, Hwa Yuen of Sung, Sun Lin-foo of Wei, an officer of Ts-aou, and an officer

of Choo, in Ts'eih. 7 On Ke-ch‘ow, we buried our duchess, Ts'e Këang. 8 Shuh-sun P'aou went to Sung. In winter, Chung-sun Mëeh had a meeting with Seun Ying

of Tsin, Ts'uy Ch'oo of Ts'e, Hwa Yuen of Sung, Sun
Lin-foo of Wei, an officer of Ts-aou, an officer of Choo,
an officer of Tăng, an officer of Sëeh, and an officer of
Little Choo, in Ts'eih, when they proceeded to wall

Hoo-laou.
10 Ts'oo put to death its great officer, the Kung-tsze Shin.

9

Par. 1. This burial, 5 months after death, I his shoulder upon Tsin, but he said, “For the Was sooner than “the rule' prescribed.

sake of Ching, the ruler of Ts'oo received an Par. 2. Acc. to Tso, this “invasion' was arrow in his eye. It was for me he underwent merely “an incursion,' at the command of Tsóoo. this, and for no other man. If I revolt from

[The Chuen app'nds here:—The marquis of him, I cast away his efforts in our behalf and Ts'e invaded Lae, the people of which sent my own promise ;-who in such a case would care Ching Yu-tsze to bribe Suh Shia-wei [Chief for my friendship? It is for you, my officers, eunuch in Ts'e) with a hundred choice horses to save me from such a course.” In autumn, in and as many oxen. On this the army of Ts'e the 7th month, on Kăng-shin, Kwăn, earl of returned. From this the superior man might Ch‘ing, died.' know that duke Ling of Ts'e was indeed ling

In this last sentence of the Chuen, Kång. (A play on the ineaning of the term as a post- shin, the day of the earl's death, is said to hare humous epithet)].'

been in the 7th month, and not in the 6th as in Par. 3. This was duke Ch‘ing's wife proper,

the text. And the Chuen must be correct, for called the 'wife-mother.Co y of duke Kång-yin of par. 3 being in the 5th month, there Sëang. The Chuen says:- Before this, Muh

cannot have been a Kăng-shin day in the 6th. Këang [Duke Ch'ing's mother] had caused

Acc. to Too's scheme of the calendar, Kăng-shin some fine këa trees to be chosen, to make for

was the 9th day of the 7th month. herself a coffin and a sung lute. Ke Wăn-tsze

There is no mention subsequently of the now took the coffin to bury Ts'e Këang in. burial of the earl of Ch‘ing; “because,' acc. to The superior man will pronounce this proceed K'aou Kóang, “ he had joined the party of Ts'oo, ing contrary to propriety. Propriety admits of and the other States therefore did not observe nothing unreasonable. A wife should nourish the usual measures at his funeral.' her mother-in-law;-nothing could be more un

Par. 5. The Chuen says :—' At this time, reasonable than to take from the mother-in-law Tsze-han [of Ch‘ing) had charge of the State, to supply the wife. The ode (She, III. iii. ode Tsze-sze was chief minister, and Tsze-kwoh was

minister of War. All the other great officers

wished to give in the adhesion of the State to “There is indeed a wise man ;

Tsin, but Tsze-sze said, “ The charge to us offi.
I tell him good words,
And he yields to them the practice of

cers is not yet changed."
docile virtue."

Tsin was now taking advantage of the death

of the earl of Ch'ing to attack the State. The Bat Ke-sun in this showed himself not wise. other officers wanted to submit to it, but TszeAnd ['Ts'e] Këang was the duke's mother. The

sze held that the charge of the deceased earl, ode (She, IV. i. Bk. ii. ode IV.), says,

that they should adhere to Tsioo, was binding “With spirits and sweet spirits,

on them, till his successor should give them To present to our deceased parents, different instructions, and it was too early for And in supply for all ceremonies ;

him to have done so. To attack a State when Very abundant is the blessing conferred suffering from the death of its ruler was conupon us.

trary to the rule and practice of those times. Par. 4. The Chuen says:—Duke Cl:'ing of the commentators have much to say on this Ch‘ing was ill, and Tsze-sze begged him to ease point.

II. 9.) says,

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