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Made to his mistress' eye-brow: Then, a soldier ;
7 - a soldier;
Full of strange oaths, and bearded like the pard,] So, in Cynthia's Revels, by Ben Jonson:
" Your soldiers face—the grace of this face consistech much in a beard.” STEEVENS.
Beards of different cut were appropriated in our author's time to different characters and profeslions. The soldier had one fashion, the judge another, the bishop different from both, &c. See a note on K. Henry V. Act III. sc. vi: “ And what a beard of the general's cut,” &c. Malone
8 sudden and quick--] Left it should be supposed that these epithets are synonymous, it is necessary to be observed that one of the ancient senses of sudden, is violent. Thus, in Macbeth:
“ I grant him sudden, , “ Malicious,” &c. STEVENS.
9 Full of avise faws and modern inftances,] It is remarkable that Shakspeare uses modern in the double sense that the Greeks used raiva, both for recens and absurdus. WARBURTON.
I am in doubt whether modern is in this place used for absurd: the meaning seems to be, that the justice is full of old sayings and late examples. Johnson. Modern means trite, common. So, in K. John:
“ And scorns a modern invocation." Again, in this play, Act IV. sc. i: “ - betray themselves to modern censure." STEVENS.
Again, in another of our author's plays: “ to make modern and familiar things supernatural and causeless.” MALONE.
The fixth age shifts Into the lean and Nipper'd pantaloon ;] There is a greater beauty than appears at first sight in this image. He is here com.
With spectacles on nose, and pouch on side;
is Itran ound: Lan treble, bly voice.
Re-enter ORLANDO, with ADAM.
Duke S. Welcome : Set down your venerable
burden, And let him feed, Orl.
I thank you most for him.
paring human life to a stage play of seven acts, (which is no unusual division before our author's time.) The fixth he calls the lean and slipper'd pantaloon, alluding to that general character in the Italian comedy, called Il Pantalóne; who is a thin emaciated old man in slippers; and well designed, in that epithet, because Pantalóne is the only character that acts in Nippers. WARBURTON.
In The Travels of the three English Brothers, a comedy, 1606, an Italian Harlequin is introduced, who offers to perform a play at a Lord's house, in which among other characters he mentions " a jealous coxcomb, and an old Pantaloune.” But this is seven years later than the date of the play before us: nor do I know from whence our author could learn the circumstance mentioned by Dr. Warburton, that “ Pantalóne is the only character in the Italian comedy that acts in Nippers.” In Florio's Italian Dictionary, 1598, the word is not found. In The Taming of the Shrew, one of the characters, if I remember right, is called “ an old Pantaloon,” but there is no farther description of him. MALONE..
3 - Set down your venerable burden,] Is it not likely that Shakspeare had in his mind this line of the Metamorphofes? XIII. 125
" - Patremque
NSON. A. Golding, p. 169, b. edit. 1587, translates it thus :
“- upon his backe
ADAM. So had you need; I scarce can speak to thank you for myself. Duke S. Welcome, fall to: I will not trouble
you As yet, to question you about your fortunes :Give us some musick; and, good cousin, sing.
As man's ingratitude ; }
Although thy breath be rude.
Then, heigh, bo, the bolly!
3 Thou art not so unkind, &c.] That is, thy action is not so contrary to thy kind, or to human nature, as the ingratitude of man. So,ʻin our author's Venus and Adonis, 1593 :
6. O had thy mother borne so bad a mind,
“ She had not brought forth thee, but dy'd unkind." MALONE. 4 Thy tooth is not so keen,
Because thou art not seen,] This song is designed to suit the Duke's exiled condition, who had been ruined by ungrateful flatterers. Now the winter wind, the song says, is to be preferred to man's ingratitude. But why? Because it is not seen. But this was not only an aggravation of the injury, as it was done in secret, not seen, but was the very circumstance that made the keenness of the ingratitude of his faithless courtiers. Without doubt, Shakspeare wrote the line thus :
Because thou art not sheen, i. e. smiling, shining, like an ungrateful court-servant, who flatters while he wounds, which was a very good reason for giving II.
Freeze, freeze, thou bitter sky,
As benefits forgot :
As friend remember'd not.
the winter wind the preference. So, in The Midsummer Night's Dream:
“ Spangled ftar-light sheen." And several other places. Chaucer ufes it in this sense:
“ Your blissful lifter Lucina the fhene. And Fairfax:
" The facred angel took his target shene,
“ And by the Christian champion stood unseen." The Oxford editor, who had this emendation communicated to him, takes occasion from hence to alter the whole line thus :
Thou causest not that teen. But, in his rage of correction, he forgot to leave the reason, which is now wanting, Why the winter wind was to be preferred to man's ingratitude. WARBURTON.
I am afraid that no reader is fatisfied with Dr. Warburton's cmendation, however vigorously enforced ; and it is indeed enforced with more art than truth. Sheen, i. e. smiling, Jhining. That sheen signifies shining, is easily proved, but when or where did it fignify smiling? yet smiling gives the sense necessary in this place. Sir T. Hanmer's change is less uncouth, but too remote from the present text. For my part, I question whether the original line is not loft, and this substituted merely to fill up the measure and the rhyme. Yet even out of this line, by strong agitation may sense be elicited, and sense not unsuitable to the occasion. Thou winter wind, says Amiens, thy rudeness gives the less pain, as thou art not seen, as thou art an enemy that doft not brave us with thy presence, and whose unkindness is therefore not aggravated by insult.
JOHNSON. Though the old text may be tortured into a meaning, perhaps it would be as well to read:
Because the heart's not seen. ỳ harts, according to the ancient mode of writing, was easily corrupted. FARMER.
Duke S. If that you were the good sir Rowland's
son,As you have whisper'd faithfully, you were ;
So, in the Sonnet introduced into Love's Labour's Loft:
“ Through the velvet leaves the wind
“ All unleen 'gan passage find.” STEEVENS. Again, in Measure for Meajure :
“ To be imprison’d in the viewless winds.” Malone. I Though thou the waters warp,] The surface of waters, so long as they remain unfrozen, is apparently a perfect plane; whereas, when they are, this surface deviates from its exact flatness, or warps. This is remarkable in small ponds, the surface of which when frozen, forms a regular concave; the ice on the sides rising higher than that in the middle. Kenrick.
To warp was probably in Shakspeare's time, a colloquial word, which conveyed no distant allusion to any thing else, physical or mechanical. To warp is to turn, and to turn is to change: when milk is changed by curdling, we now say it is turned: when water is changed or turned by frost, Shakspeare says, it is curdled. To be warp'd is only to be changed from its natural state.
JOHNSON. Dr. Johnson is certainly right. So, in Cynthia's Revels, of Ben Jonson. “I know not, he's grown out of his garb a-late, he's warp'd.--And so, methinks too, he is much converted." Thus the mole is called the mould-warp, because it changes the appearance of the surface of the earth. Again, in The Winter's Tale, Act I:
« My favour here begins to warp." Dr. Farmer supposes warp'd to mean the same as curdled, and adds that a similar idea occurs in Timon :
“ - the icicle
« That curdled by the frost,” &c. STEVENS. Among a collection of Saxon adages in Hickes's Thesaurus, Vol. I. p. 221, the succeeding appears: pinten sceal ze þeonpan peden, winter shall warp water. So that Shakspeare's expression was anciently proverbial. It should be remarked, that among the numerous examples in Manning's excellent edition of Lye's Dictimnary, there is no instance of peonpan or ze peonpan, implying to freeze, bend, turn, or curdle, though it is a verb of very extensive fignification.
Probably this word still retains a fimilar sense in the Northern part of the Isand, for in a Scottish parody on Dr. Percy's clegant ballad, beginning, “O Nancy, wit thou go with me,”