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My tongue hath wrong'd him : if it do him right, 'Then he hath wrong'd himself; if he be free, Why then, my taxing like a wild goose flies, Unclaim'd of any man.-But who comes here?
Enter Orlando, with his sword drawn.
Why, I have eat none yet.
I believe we should read-Where then? So, in Othello :
" What then? How then? Where's satisfaction ?" MALONE, 1- the thorny point
Of bare distress hath ta'en from me the show
Of smooth civility:] We might read torn with more elegance, but elegance alone will not justify alteration. Johnson.
8 inland tred,] Inland here, and elsewhere in this play, is the opposite to outland, or upland. Orlando means to say, that he bad not been bred among clowns. HOLT White.
9 And knozu fome nurture :] Nurture is education, breeding, manners. So, in Greene's Never too Latt, 1616:
“ He new'd himself as full of nurture as of nature." Again, as Mr. Holt White observes to me, Barret favs in his Alvrarie, 1580: “ It is a point of nurture, or good manners, to falute them that you meete. Urbanitatis eft falutar. ob.z.ios."
JAQ. An you will not be answered with reason, I must die. Duke S. What would you have? Your gentle
ness shall force, More than your force move us to gentleness.
Ori. I almost die for food, and let me have it. Duke S. Sit down and feed, and welcome to our
table. Orl. Speak you so gently? Pardon me, I pray you: I thought, that all things had been savage here; And therefore put I on the countenance Of stern commandment: But whate'er you are, That in this desert inaccessible, Under the shade of melancholy boughs, Lose and neglect the creeping hours of time; If ever you have look'd on better days; If ever been where bells have knollid to church; If ever sat at any good man's feast; If ever from your eye-lids wip'd a tear, And know what 'tis to pity, and be pitied; Let gentleness my strong enforcement be : In the which hope, I blush, and hide my sword.
Duke S. True is it that we have seen better days; And have with holy bell been knoll’d to church; And sat at good men's feasts; and wip'd our eyes Of drops that sacred pity hath engender'd: : And therefore fit you down in gentleness, And take upon command what help we have, That to your wanting may be ministred.
e- defert inaccessible, 1 This expression I find in The Adventures of Simonides, by Barn. Riche, 1580: “— and onely acquainted himselfe with the solitarinesse of this unaccessible defert."
HENDERSON. 2 And take upon command what help we have,] Upon command, is at your own command. STEEVENS.
Orl. Then, but forbear your food a little while, Whiles, like a doe, I go to find my fawn, And give it food. There is an old poor man, Who after me hath many a weary step Limp'd in pure love ; till he be first suffic'd, Oppress'd with two weak evils, age and hunger, I will not touch a bit. Duke S.
Go find him out, And we will nothing waste till you return. ORL. I thank ye; and be bless'd for your good comfort!
[Exit. DUKE S. Thou seest, we are not all alone un
3 Whiles, like a doe, I go to find my fawn,
«°Like a milch die, whose swelling dugs do ake,
“ Hasting to feed her fawn.” MALONE. 4 Wherein we play in.] Thus the old copy. Mr. Pope more correctly reads :
Wherein we play.
Wherein we play. and add a word at the beginning of the next speech, to complete the measure; viz.
“ Why, all the world's a stage." Thus, in Hamlet:
“ Hor. So Rosencrantz and Guildenstern go to't.
“ Ham. Why, man, they did make love to their employment." Again, in Menfure for Measure:
" Why, all the souls that were, were forfeit once." Again, ibid:
" Why, every fault's condemn'd, ere it be done.” In twenty other instances we find the same adverb introductorily used. Steevens.
All the world's a stage, And all the men and women merely players : They have their exits, and their entrances; And one man in his time plays many parts, His acts being seven ages. At first, the infant,
4 All the world's a flage, &c.] This observation occurs in one of the fragments of Petronius: “ Non duco contentionis funem, dum conftet inter nos, quod fere totus mundus exerceat histrioniam.”
STE EVENS. This observation had been made in an English drama before the time of Shakspeare. See Damon and Pythias, 1582 :
“ Pythagoras said, that this world was like a stage,
“ Whereon many play their parts." In The Legend of Orpheus and Eurydice, 1597, we find these lines:
“ Unhappy man
" While as the aås are measur’d by his age.” MALONB. 5 His acts being feven ages.] Dr. Warburton observes, that this was “ no unusual division of a play before our author's time;" but forbears to offer any one example in support of his assertion. I have carefully perused almost every dramatick piece antecedent to Shakspeare, or contemporary with him ; but so far from being divided into acts, they are alınost all printed in an unbroken continuity of scenes. I should add, that there is one play of six acts to be met with, and another of twenty-one; but the second of these is a translation from the Spanish, and never could have been designed for the stage. In God's Promises, 1577, “ A Tragedie or Enterlude,” (or rather a Mystery) by Jolin Bale, seven acts may indeed be found. STEEVENS.
Dr. Warburton boldly afferts that this was “ no unusual division of a play before our author's time." One of Chapman's plays (Tavo Wise Men and all the rest Fools) is indeed in seven acts.
This, however, is the only dramatick piece that I have found so divided. But surely it is not necessary to suppose that our author alluded here to any such precife division of the drama. His comparisons feldom run on four feet. It was sufficient for him that a play was distributed into several acts, and that human life, long before his time, had been divided into jeven periods. In the Treasury of Ancient and Modern Times, 1613, Proclus, a Greek author, is said to have divided the life-time of man into SEVEN AGES; over each of which one of the seven planets was supposed to rule. “ The First AGE is called Infancy, containing
Mewling and puking in the nurse's arms;
foure, yeareshe yeares of fourtof eight yeatest
the space of foure yeares.- The secoND AGE continueth ten years, untill he attaine to the yeares of fourteene: this age is called Childhood.--The THIRD AGE confifteth of eight yeares, being named by our auncients Adolescencie or Youthhood; and it lasteth from fourteene, till two and cwenty yeares be fully compleate. The FOURTH AGE paceth on, till a man have accomplished two and fortie yeares, and is tearmed Young Manhood. The Fifth AGE, named Mature Manhood, hath (according to the said authour) fifteene yeares of continuance, and therefore makes his progress so far as fix and fifty yeares.-Afterwards in adding twelve to fiftyfixe, you shall make up sixty-eight yeares, which reach to the end of the sixT AGE, and is called Old Age:—The SEAVENTH and last of these seven ages is limited from sixty-eight yeares, so far as four-score and eight, being called weak, declining, and Decrepite Age. If any man chance to goe beyond this age, (which is more admired than noted in many,) you shall evidently perceive that he will returne to his first condition of Infancy againe.”
Hippocrates likewise divided the life of man into seven ages, but differs from Proclus in the number of years allotted to each period. See Brown's Vulgar Errors, folio, 1686, p. 173.
MALONE. I have seen, more than once, an old print entitled, The fage of Man's Lifc, divided into seven ages. As emblematical representations of this fort were formerly Ituck up, both for ornament and instruction, in the generality of houses, it is more probable that Shakspeare took his hint from thence, than from Hippocrates or Proclus. Henley.
One of the representations to which Mr. Henley alludes, was formerly in my possession; and considering the use it is of in explaining the passage before us, “ I could have better spared a better print.” I well remember that it exhibited the school-boy with his satchel hanging over his shoulders. STEEVENS.
6 And then,] And, which is wanting in the old copy, was supplied, for the sake of metre, by Mr. Pope. Steevens.
7 Sighing like furnace,] So, in Cymbeline : " he furnaceth the thick fighs from him ," MALONE.