תמונות בעמוד

make itself ten, which is a goodly increase; and the principal itself not much the worse: Away with’t.

3 within ten years, it will make itself ten,] The old copy reads" within ten years it will make itself two." The emenda. tion was made by Sir T. Hanmer. It was also suggested by Mr. Steevens, who likewise proposed to read~" within two years it will make itself two." Mr. Tollet would read~" within ten years it will make itself twelve."

I formerly proposed to read—“ Out with it: within ten months it will make itself two." Part with it, and within ten months' time it will double itself; i. e. it will produce a child.

I now mention this conjecture (in which I once had some confidence) only for the purpose of acknowledging my error. I had not sufficiently attended to a former passage in this scene, “ Virginity, by being once loft, may be ten times found,” i. e. may produce ten virgins. Those words likewise are spoken by Parolles, and add such decisive support to Sir Thomas Hanmer's emendation, that I have not hesitated to adopt it. The text, as exhibited in the old copy, is undoubtedly corrupt. It has already been observed, that many passages in these plays, in which numbers are introduced, are printed incorrectly. Our author's sixth Sonnet fully supports the emendation here made:

* That use is not forbidden usury,
" Which happies those that pay the willing loan;
“ That's for thyself, to breed another thee,
" Or ten times happier, be it ten for one.
“ Ten times thyself were happier than thou art,

If ten of thiné ten times refigur'd thee.Out with it," is used equivocally.-Applied to virginity, it means, give it away; part with it: considered in another light, it fignifies, put it out to interest. In The Tempeft we have—“ Each putter out on five for one,” &c. MALONE.

There is no reason for altering the text. A well-known ob. fervation of the noble earl, to whom the horses of the present generation owe the length of their tails, contains the true explanation of this passage. Henley.

I cannot help repeating on this occasion, Justice Shallow's remark: “ Give me pardon, fir:-if you come with news, I take it there is but two ways; -rither to utter them, or to conceal them." With this noble earl's notorious remark, I am quite unacquainted. But perhaps the critick (with a flippancy in which he has sometimes indulged himself at my expence) will reply, like Pistol, “ Why then lament therefore;" or observe, like Hamlet, that “ a knavith fpeech fleeps in a foolish ear.” Steevens.

Hel. How might one do, sir, to lose it to her own liking ?

Par. Let me see: Marry, ill, to like him that ne'er it likes.* 'Tis a commodity will lose the gloss with lying; the longer kept, the less worth: off with’t, while 'tis vendible : answer the time of request. Virginity, like an old courtier, wears her cap out of fashion; richly suited, but unsuitable : just like the brooch and tooth-pick, which wear not now :s Your date is better in your pye and your porridge, than in your cheek: And your virginity, your old virginity, is like one of our French wither'd pears; it looks ill, it eats dryly; marry, 'tis a wither'd pear; it was formerly better; marry, yet, 'tis a wither'd pear: Will you any thing with it?

Hel. Not my virginity yet.

Marry, ill, to like him that ne'er it likes.] Parolles, in answer to the question, “ How one shall lose virginity to her own liking?" plays upon the word liking, and says, he must do ill, for virginity, to be so loft, must like bim that likes not virginity.

JOHNSON. which wear not now:] Thus the old copy, and rightly. Shakfpeare often uses the active for the passive. The modern editors read, “ which we wear not now." TYRWHITT, The old copy has were. Mr. Rowe corrected it.

MALONE. 6 Y our date is better-] Here is a quibble on the word date, which means both age, and a candied fruit much used in our author's time. So, in Romeo and Juliet:

“ They call for dates and quinces in the pastry.” The same quibble occurs in Troilus and Crellida: « and then to be bak'd with no date in the pye, for then the man's date is out." STEEVENS.

8 Not my virginity yer.] This whole speech is abrupt, unconnected, and obscure. Dr. Warburton thinks much of it suppofititious. I would be glad to think so of the whole, for a commentator naturally wishes to reject what he cannot understand. Something, which Thould connect Helena's words with those of

There shall your master have a thousand loves,
A mother, and a mistress, and a friend,

Parolles, seems to be wanting. Hanmer has made a fair attempt by reading:

Not my virginity yet.—You're for the court,

There hall your master, &c. Some such clausé has, I think, dropped out, but still the first words want connection. Perhaps Parolles, going away after his harangue, said, will you any thing with me? to which Helen may reply. I know not what to do with the passage.

Johnson. I do not perceive so great a want of connection as my predecessors have apprehended; nor is that connection always to be fought for, in so careless a writer as ours, froin the thought immediately preceding the reply of the speaker. Parolles has been laughing at the unprofitableness of virginity, especially when it grows ancient, and compares it to withered fruit. Helena properly enough replies, that hers is not yet in that state; but that in the enjoyment of her, his master should find the gratification of all his most romantic wishes. What Dr. Warburton says afterwards is said at random, as all positive declarations of the same kind must of necessity be. Were I to propose any change, I would read should instead of pall. It does not however appear that this rapturous effusion of Helena was designed to be intelligible to Parolles. Its obscurity, therefore, may be its merit. It sufficiently explains what is passing in the mind of the speaker, to every one but him to whom she does not mean to explain it. Steevens.

Perhaps we should read: “ Will you any thing with us?” i. e. will you send any thing with us to court? to which Helena's answer would be proper enough

“ Not my virginity yet.". A similar phrase occurs in Twelfth Night, Act III. sc. i:

You'll nothing, madam, to my lord by me?” Perhaps something has been omitted in Parolles's speech. "I am now bound for ihe court; will you any thing with it [i. e. with the court]?" So, in The Winter's Tale:

o Tell me what you have to the king." I do not agree with Mr. Steevens in the latter part of his note; " - that in the enjoyment of her,”' &c. MALONE.

I am fatisfied the passage is as Shakspeare left it. Parolles, after having cried down with all his eloquence, old virginity, in reference to what he had before faid, -" That virginity is a commodity the


[ocr errors][ocr errors]

A phenix,' captain, and an enemy,
A guide, a goddess, and a sovereign,
A counsellor, a traitress, and a dear;

longer kept, the less worth: off with't, while 'tis vendible. ANSWER THE TIME of Request." alks Helena,-" Will you any thing with it?"-to which she replies" Not My virginity YET.” Henley.

9 A phenix, &c.] The eight lines following friend, I am persuaded, is the nonsense of some foolish conceited player. What put it into his head was Helen's saying, as it should be read for the future:

There shall your master have a thousand loves;
A mother, and a mistress, and a friend,

I know not what be foallGod send him well. Where the fellow, finding a thousand loves spoken of, and only three reckoned up, namely, a mother's, a mistress's, and a friend's, (which, by the way, were all a judicious writer could mention; for there are but these three species of love in nature) he would help out the number, by the intermediate nonsense; and, because they were yet too few, he pieces out his loves with enmities, and makes of the whole such finilhed nonsense, as is never heard out of Bedlam. WARBURTON.

2 - captain,] Our author often uses this word for a head or chief. So, in one of his Sonnets:

“ Or captain jewels in the carkanet." Again, in Timon of Athens : “ - the ass more captain than the lion.” Again more appositely, in Othello, where it is applied to Des. demona:

" — our great captain's captain." We find some of these terms of endearment again used in The Winter's Tale. Leontes says to the young Mamillius,

“ Come, caplain, we must be neat,” &c.
Again, in the same scene, Polixenes, speaking of his son, says,

“ He's all my exercise, my mirth, my matter;
“ Now my sworn friend, and then mine enemy;

My parafite, my foldier, ftatesman, all,” MALONE. 3 _ a traitress,] It seems that traitress was in that age a term of endearment, for when Lafeu introduces Helena to the king, he says," You are like a traytor, but such traytors his majesty does not much fear.” Johnson.

I cannot conceive that traitress (spoken seriously) was in any age a term of endearment. From the present passage, we might as well suppose enemy (in the last line but one) to be a term of me

His humble ambition, proud humility,
His jarring concord, and his discord dulcet,
His faith, his sweet disaster; with a world
Of pretty, fond, adoptious christendoms,

dearment. In the other passage quoted, Lafeu is plainly speaking ironically. TYRWHITT.

Traditora, a traitress, in the Italian language, is generally used as a term of endearment. The meaning of Helen is, that she shall prove every thing to Bertram. Our ancient writers delighted in catalogues, and always characterize love by contrarieties.

STEEVENS. Falstaff, in The Merry Wives of Windsor, says to Mrs. Ford : “ Thou art a traitor to say so." In his interview with her, he certainly meant to use the language of love

Helena however, I think, does not mean to say that she shall prove every thing to Bertram, but to express her apprehension that he will find at the court some lady or ladies who shall prove every thing to him; (“a phenix, captain, counsellor, traitress; &c.”) to whom he will give all the fond names that “ blinking Cupid gossips." MALONE.

I believe it would not be difficult to find in the love poetry of those times an authority for moft, if not for every one, of these whimsical titles. At least I can affirm it from knowledge, that far the greater part of them are to be found in the Italian lyrick poetry, which was the model from which our poets chiefly copied.

Heath. 4 christendoms,] This word, which fignifies the collective body of christianity, every place where the christian religion is embraced, is surely used with much licence on the present occasion.

Steevens. It is used by another ancient writer in the same sense; fo that the word probably bore, in our author's time, the signification which he has affixed to it. So, in A Royal Arbor of Loyal Pocfie, by Thomas Jordan, no date, but printed about 1661:

“ She is baptiz'd in Christendom,

[i. e, by a christian name,]

« The Jew cries out he's undone-.". These lines are found in a ballad formed on part of the story of The Merchant of Venice, in which it is remarkable that it is the Jew's daughter, and not Portia, that saves the Merchant's life by pleading his caufe. There should seem therefore to have been fome novel on this subječt that has hitherto escaped the researches of the commentators. In the same book are ballads founded on the fables of Much ado about Nothing, and The Winter's Tale. MALONE,

« הקודםהמשך »