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country copulatives, to swear, and to forswear; according as marriage binds, and blood breaks: 8 A poor virgin, sir, an ill-favour'd thing, sir, but mine own; a poor humour of mine, sir, to take that that no man else will: Rich honesty dwells like a miser, sir, in a poor house; as your pearl, in your foul oyster.
Duke S. By my faith, he is very swift and fententious.
Touců. According to the fool's bolt, sir, and such dulcet diseases.'
I have not admitted the alteration, because there are other examples of this mode of expression. JOHNSON.
See a note on the first scene of the third Act of A Midsummer Night's Dream, where many examples of this phraseology are given. So also, in Spenser's Faery Queen, B. II. c. ix :
“ If it be I, of pardon I you pray.” Again, B. IV. c. viii:
“ She dear befought the prince of remedy,” STEEVENS. 8 according as marriage binds, and blood breaks :) To fwear according as marriage binds, is to take the oath enjoined in the ceremonial of marriage. Johnson.
- to swear, and to forswear ; according as marriage binds, and blood breaks :] A man by the marriage ceremony swears that he will keep only to his wife; when therefore, to gratify his luft, he leaves her for another, BLOOD BREAKS his matrimonial obligationi, and he is FORSWORN. HENLEY.
9 - dulcet diseases.] This I do not understand. For diseases it is easy to read discourses : but, perhaps, the fault may lie deeper.
JOHNSON. Perhaps he calls a proverb a disease. Proverbial sayings may appear to him as the surfeiting discases of conversation. They are often the plague of commentators.
Dr. Farmer would read--in such dulcet diseases; i. e. in the sweet uneafinesses of love, a time when people usually talk nonsense.
STEEVENS, Without staying to examine how far the position last advanced is founded in truth, I shall only add, that I believe the text is right, and that this word is capriciously used for sayings, though neither in its primary or figurative sense it has any relation to that word. In The Merchant of Venice the Clown talks in the same style, but more
JAQ. But, for the seventh cause; how did you find the quarrel on the seventh cause?
TOUCH. Upon a lie seven times removed ; 2 Bear your body more seeming,’ Audrey :-as thus,
intelligibly :-" the young gentleman (according to the fates and destinies, and such odd sayings, the sisters three, and such branches of learning) is indeed deceased.” Malone.
2 Upon a lie seven times removed ;] Touchstone here enumerates seyen kinds of lies, from the Retort courteous to the seventh and most aggravated species of lie, which he calls the lie direct. The cour. tier's answer to his intended affront, he expressly tells us, was the Retort courteous, the first species of lie. When therefore he says, that they found the quarrel was on the lie seven times Removed, we must underttand by the latter word, the lie removed seven times, counting backwards, (as the word removed seems to intimate,) from the last and most aggravated species of lie, namely, the lie direct. So, in All's well that ends well:
“ Who hath some four or five removes come short
" To tender it herself.” Again, in the play before us: " Your accent is something finer than you could purchase in so removed a dwelling,” i. e. so distant from the haunts of men.
When Touchstone and the courtier met, they found their quarrel originated on the seventh cause, i. e. on the Retort courteous, or the lie feven times removed. In the course of their altercation, after their meeting, Touchstone did not dare to go farther than the sixth species, (counting in regular progression from the first to the last,) the lie circumstantial; and the courtier was afraid to give him the lie direct; so they parted. In a subsequent enumeration of the degrees of a lie, Touchstone expressly names the Retort courteous, as the first ; calling it therefore here « the seventh cause,” and “ the lie seven times removed,” he must mean, distant seven times from the most offensive lie, the lie direct. There is certainly therefore no need of reading with Dr. Johnson in a former passage-" We found the quarrel was not on the seventh cause.”
The misapprehension of that most judicious critick relative to these passages must apologize for my having employed so many words in explaining them. MaloNE.
3 - seeming,] i.e. seemly. Seeming is often used by Shakspeare for becoming, or fairness of appearance. So, in The Winter's Tale : "
these keep “ Seeming and favour all the winter long." STEVENS.
fir. I did disike the cut of a certain courtier's beard ;3 he sent me word, if I said his beard was not cut well, he was in the mind it was : This is called the Retort courteous. If I sent him word again, it was not well cut, he would send me word, he cut it to please himself: This is called the Quip modest. If again, it was not well cut, he disabled my judgement: This is call'd the Reply churlis. If again, it was not well cut, he would answer, I spake not true: This is call'd the Reproof valiant. If again, it was not well cut, he would say, I lie: This is called the Countercheck quarrelsome: and so to the Lie circumstantial, and the Lie direét.
JAQ. And how oft did you say, his beard was not well cut?
Touch. I durft go no further than the Lie circumstantial, nor he durft not give me the Lie direEt; and so we measured swords, and parted.
JAQ. Can you nominate in order now the degrees of the lie?
Touch. O fir, we quarrel in print, by the book ;
3 as thus, for. I did dislike the cut of a certain courtier's beard;] This folly is touched upon with high humour by Fletcher, · in his Queen of Corinth:
Has he familiarly
or drawn your sword,
WARBURTON. 4 O fir, we quarrel in print, by the book ;] The poet has, in this scene, rallied the mode of formal duelling, then so prevalent, with the highest humour and address : nor could he have treated it with a happier contempt, than by making his Clown so knowing in the forms and preliminaries of it. The particular book here alluded to is a very ridiculous treatise of one Vincentio Saviolo, as you have books for good manners:s I will name you the degrees. The first, the Retort courteous; the second, the Quip modest; the third the Reply
intitled, Of Honour and honourable Quarrels, in quarto, printed by Wolf, 1594. The first part of this tract he entitles, 'A discourse mift necessary for all gentlemen that have in regard their honours, touching the giving and receiving the lie, whereupon the Duello and the Combat in divers forms doth ensue; and many other inconveniences for lack only of true knowledge of honour, and the right understanding of words, which here is Jet down. The contents of the several chapters are as follow. I, What the reason is that the party unto whom the lie is given ought to become challenger, and of the nature of lies. II. Of the manner and diversity of lies. III. Of lies certain, (or direct.] IV. Of conditional lies, [or the lie circumstantial.) V. Of the lie in general. VI. Of the lie in particular. VII. Of foolish lies. VIII. A conclusion touching the wresting or returning back of the lie, (or the countercheck quarrelsome.] In the chapter of conditional lies, speaking of the particle if, he says, “ Conditional lies be such as are given conditionally, as if a man should say or write these wordes :--if thou hast said that I have offered my lord abuse, thou lieft ; or if thou sayest jo hereafter, thou shalt lie. Of theje kind of lies, given in this manner, often arise much contention in wordes,--whereof no sure conclufion can arise." By which he means, they cannot proceed to cut one another's throat, while there is an if between. Which is the reason of Shakspeare making the Clown say, “ I knew when seven justices could not make up a quarrel: but when the parties were met themselves, one of them thought but of an if; as, if you said so, then I said so, and they shook hands, and frore brothers. Your if is the only peace-maker; much virtue in if.” Caranza was another of these authentick authors upon the Duello. Fletcher, in his last Act of Love's Pilgrimage, ridicules him with much humour. WARBURTON,
The words which I have included within crotchets are Dr. Warburton's. They have been hitherto printed in such a manner as might lead the reader to suppose that they made a part of Saviolo's work. The passage was very inaccurately printed by Dr. Warburton in other respects, but has here been corrected by the ori. ginal. MALONE.
s books for good manners :] One of these books I have, It is entitled The Boke of Nurture, or Schole of good Manners, for Men, Servants, and Children, with ftans puer ad menfam; 12mo. black letter, without date. It was written by Hugh Rhodes, a gentleman, or musician, of the Chapel Royal ; and was first published in 4to, in the reign of King Edward VI. STEVENS,
churlish; the fourth, the Reproof valiant; the fifth, the Countercheck quarrelsome; the sixth, the Lie with circumstance; the seventh, the Lie direct. All these you may avoid, but the Lie direct; and you may avoid that too, with an If. I knew when seven justices could not take up a quarrel; but when the parties were met themselves, one of them thought but of an If, as, If you said so, then I said fo; and they shook hands, and swore brothers. Your If is the only peace-maker; much virtue in If.
JAQ. Is not this a rare fellow, my lord? he's as good at any thing, and yet a fool.
Duke S. He uses his folly like a stalking-horse, and under the presentation of that, he shoots his wit.
Enter Hymen, leading RoSALIND in woman's clothes;
Hym. Then is there mirth in heaven,
When earthly thing's made even
Yea, brought her bither;
Another is, Galateo of Maister John Casa, Archbishop of Benevento; or rather, a Treatise of the Manners and Behaviours it behoveth a Man to use and eschewe in his familiar Conversation. A Work very necessary and profitable for all Gentlemen or other; translated from the Italian by Robert Peterson of Lincoln's Inn, 4to. 1576. Reed.
6 — like a stalking-horse,] See my note on Much ado about Nothing, Act II. sc. iii. SteevenS.
7 Enter Hymen,] Rosalind is imagined by the rest of the com