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that she had faith enough still to send her children to the ignorant pretender, and "hoped that her eldest daughter would go to him on the following day."

It would be obviously impracticable for us to give a view of all the matters connected with the subject of the works at the head of this article. Public and private hygiène embrace a multitude of subjects, and each has occupied volumes. There are some topics, however, touched upon in them, and some doctrines contained, especially in the last of them, which, as they seem to us to be neither philosophical in theory, nor accurate in fact, we shall, amongst other matters, briefly canvass.

If we leave out of the calculation the antediluvian periods, respecting the chronology of which, the most reflecting and orthodox historians have differed, we have the strongest evidence that the duration of life is much the same as it has ever been. Of the ordinary longevity, 4000 years ago, we have undisputed testimony in the oldest historian whose works are extant. Moses writes :

“The days of our years are threescore and ten ; and if by reason of strength they be fourscore years, yet is their strength labour and sorrow, for it is soon cut off, and we fly away.” Ps. xc.

David lived 500 years later than Moses. When Barzillai excused himself for not visiting the royal palace at Jerusalem, he observed to the king :

“I am this day fourscore years old, and can I discern between good and evil? Can thy servant taste what I eat or what 1 drink? Can I hear any more the voice, of singing men and singing women? Wherefore, then, should thy seryant be yet a burden unto my Lord the King?"

A more accurate autographic representation of the feelings of an octogenarian of the present day, could scarcely have been presented.

Hufeland, in the work before us, has collected, from Lucian and various other sources, a catalogue of cases of longevity in both ancient and modern times, from which we learn, that with the Greeks, Solon lived 80 years, Epimenides of Crete 157, Anacreon, Sophocles, and Pindar 80, Gorgias of Leontium 108, Protagoras of Abdera 90, Socrates 90, Zeno 100, Democritus 109, Diogenes 90 ; and, with the Romans, Valerius Corvinus 100, Orbilius 100, Fabius, surnamed the Temporizer, 90, Cato 90, Terentia, wife of Cicero, 103, and the Empress Livia 90 years, &c. &c. pp. 89, 90.

Pliny affords some valuable statistical information, if accurate, regarding the period at which he lived, obtained from an official, and, apparently, authentic source—the census directed by the Emperor Vespasian, in the year of 76 of the Christian era. From this we learn, that at the time of the computation, there were, in the part of Italy comprised between the Apen

nines and the Po, 124 individuals aged 100 years and upwards, viz. 54 of 100 years, 57 of 110, 2 of 125, 4 of 130, 4 of 135 to 137, and 3 of 140. At Parma, a man was living aged 120, and two aged 130; at Faenza, a female aged 132; and, at a small town near Placentia, called Velleiacium, lived 6 persons aged 110 each, and 4 aged 120.

These estimates, however, by no means accord with those of Ulpian, who seems to have taken especial pains to become acquainted with the facts of the case. His researches prove, that the expectation of life in Rome at that time, was much less than it now is in London, or in any of our cities. Hufeland, indeed, asserts, that the tables of Ulpian agree perfectly with those afforded by the great cities of Europe, and that they exhibit the probabilities of life in ancient Rome to have been like those of modern London, (p. 91,) but, in opposition to his opinion, we may quote some extremely pertinent and satisfactory remarks, by Dr. F. Bisset Hawkins, in a work on “ Medical Statistics," published in the course of the past year."

“ This earliest authority (Domitius Ulpianus), on the subject of longevity, was a lawyer, in the reign of Alexander Severus, of whom he became the secretary and principal minister. From the want of hospitals among the Romans, from the humble condition of their medical

attendants, from their gross sensuality, inactive habits, abuse of the bath, and manner of dress, as well as from the unhealthy state of their situation, (which even then appears to have been a source of alarm,) we might have anticipated that longevity would not become common, and the authority of Ulpian corroborates the opinion. According to him, registers of population, puberty, age, sex, disease, and death, were kept with exactness by the censors, from the time of Servius Tullias to Justinian, and comprehend a period of ten consecutive centuries. But, unfortunately, these registers embrace the citizens of Rome alone, and not that large part of the population composed of slaves. The inferences to be drawn from them relate, accordingly, to select or picked lives, and not to the mass of society. From observations formed on 1000 years, the expectation, or mean term of Roman life, has been fixed at 30 years. To make a just comparison of the value of life in Rome and in England, we must select subjects in England similarly circumstanced, of a condition relatively easy, and the result discloses an extension of life remarkably in our favour. "Mr. Finlayson has ascertained, from very extensive observation on the decrement of life prevailing among the nominees of the Tontines, and other life annuities granted by the authority of parliament, during the last forty years, that the expectation of life is above 50 years, for persons thus situated, which affords our easy classes a superiority of 20 years above the Roman citizen. The expectation of life, for the whole mass of Britain, is at least 1 in 45, which affords to all our classes a superiority of 15 years above even the easy classes of the Romans. The mean term of life among the easy classes of Paris, is at present 42, which gives them an advantage of 12 years above the Romans.”

In the third century of the Christian era, the expectation of life in Rome was as follows:

From birth to 20, there was a probability of 30 years; from 20 to 25, of 28 years; from 25 to 30, 25 years; from 30 to 35,

Elements of Medicul Statistics, containing the substance of the Gulstonian Lectures, &c. &c. Lond. 1829. p. 7.

YOL. VIII, -NO. 16. 49


22 years, from 35 to 40, 20 years; from 10 to 45, 18 years; from 45 to 50, 13 years; from 50 to 55, 9 years; from 55 to 60, 7 years; from 60 to 65, 5 years. Farther than this the computation did not extend.

We shall see afterwards, from a table drawn up by Mr. Findayson, who is designated by Şir Gilbert Blane as one of the most able calculators of this age,”* how decidedly superior the value of life at those ages is at the present time.

The truth is, that on many points of chronology and statistics, connected with remote ages, we cannot place much reliance; and this remark applies forcibly to the estimates of the ages of individuals. In many cases, no two writers are in aecordance, and we are frequently forced to the conclusion, that no dependence can be placed upon either. •

In elucidation of this, we may quote the following passage from a recent number of the “Journal of Health,which we adduce for the further purpose of showing the blunders that may be perpetuated by faulty typography, if we may admit so favourable an apology, as well as the sophistry and misrepresentation, sometimes adopted, when the object is to inculcate a cherished opinion:

Longevity of the Ancients. The following list of long-lived persons among the ancients is introduced by Lucian, with the remark, that it may be useful,

by showing that they who took the most care of their bodies and their minds, enjoyed the longest lives, accompanied with the best health.' Hippocrates lived 109 years; Empedocles, 109; Georgius, (Gorgias?) 107; Xenophilus, 105; Py. thagoras, who, it is stated, never knew satiety, reached the age of 100; Zeno lived to 98, a stranger to disease, and never incommoded by a real indisposition; his life, we are told, was an example of sobriety and moderation ; his manners were austere; and to his temperance and regularity he was indebted for the continual flow of health which he enjoyed. Laertius, when he lost his life, was 90; and Diogenes died when in his goth year ; Phyrrho, (Pyrrho?) remarkable for the command which he held over all his passions and his feelings, lived also 90 years. Josephus informs, that the age of the Jewish Recluses was almost invariably prolonged to 100 years; and

this he accounts for, from their simple diet and mode of living."-Vol. i. No. 2. for September, 1830.

It will scarcely be credited, that this list, said to be from Lucian, is an entire fiction—a creature of the imagination. Luciant does introduce a list of those of various professions, who had attained long life amongst his predecessors, and with the remark ascribed to him ; but the list itself in nowise resembles the one quoted. Neither Hippocrates, nor Empedocles, nor Pythagoras, nor Laertius, nor Pyrrho, nor Josephus, is once mentioned. The age of Gorgias is given as 108, and the Diogenes referred to by him, is not the Cynic of Sinope, but the Stoic, a native of Seleuceia.t

* Select Dissertations on several subjects of Medical Science.
† Macrobii, 2, 3, &c.
+ Διογενης ο Σελευκιυς απο Τιγριος, Στοικος φιλοσοφος:


So much for the accuracy of the data on which this "Association of Physicians” found their inferences.

In confirmation of the uncertainty that rests upon the ages of the sages and others of antiquity, let us compare the different statements regarding some of those referred to in the above extract. The Association state, it is to be presumed on some authority, that the age of Hippocrates, when he died, was 109 years; the generality of writers say, 99; or rather that he died in his 99th year. Xenophilus, the Pythagorean philosopher, is said to have lived 105 years; according to others, he died in his 170th year, a difference of 64 years! Zeno, the founder of the sect of the Stoicks, lived, we have seen, according to one estimate, 100 years ; according to others, 97. The death of Diogenes, the Cynic, by some is placed in his 96th year; by others in his 90th; what reliance then can be put on these traditions? Yet, in his incautious zeal for the furtherance of the doctrines of ultratemperance, the author of the extract from Lucian enthusiastically exclaims,

“ Contrasted with the above, are the names of the celebrated Gourmands, Apicius, Claudius, Nero, Vitellius, Heliogabalus, whose lives, and the manner of their (whose) death, make a fruitful commentary on the advantages of temperance over gluttony and riot."-Ibid.

The reader, uninstructed in ancient history, would of course presume from this remark, that the celebrated persons alluded to had died from disease brought on by their gourmandise, and so, we cannot but believe, the writer himself imagined. But no such thing. Every one of them experienced violent death. Into the question of the existence of such an individual as Apicius, and the period at which he lived, we entered, in an early numof this Review. * We there showed, that every thing connected with him is involved in obscurity, but that Seneca asserts he destroyed himself. Claudius was poisoned by his niece, and in the 63d year of his age. Nero killed himself, in his 32d year, and Vitellius was put to death, as well as Heliogabalus !

But even admitting the authenticity of those instances of longevity amongst the Greeks and Romans, we can adduce some that are equally and more extraordinary, amongst the moderns.

The Englishman, Parr, who was born in 1635, married when at the age of 120; retained his vigour till 140; and died at the age of 152, from plethora, it is said, induced by a change of diet. Harvey, the distinguished discoverer of the circulation of the blood, who dissected him, found no decay of any organ.

Henry Jenkins, who died in Yorkshire, in 1670, is perhaps the greatest authentic instance of longevity. He lived 169 years.

* Vol. ii. p. 425. † Philosophical Transactions, vol. iii. 1698.

Margaret Forster, a native of Cumberland, England, died in 1771, aged 136 ; and James Lawrence, a Scotchman, lived 140 years.

A Dane, of the name of Drakenberg, died in 1772, in his 147th year; and John Ellingham (the French translation of Hufeland calls him Essingham) died in Cornwall, in 1757, aged 144.

Some cases of still later occurrence are given by Hufeland. In 1792, a soldier, named Mittelstedt, died in Prussia, at the age of 112. A man of the name of Kduper, died at Cologne, in the same year, who had attained a like age; and Joseph Surrington, a Norwegian, died at Bergen, in 1797, aged 160 years.

The annals of our country furnish us with many instances of unusual longevity, but enough has been said to show, that the value of human life has gone on improving for ages, and that it has not diminished since the period of our first historical records. Blumenbach' has asserted, that by an accurate examination of numerous bills of mortality, he has ascertained the fact, that a considerable proportion" of Europeans reach their S4th year, whilst few exceed it. Memorabile tamen quod plurimarum tabularum emortualium curata comparatione didici, satis multos proportione-senes Europæos annum ætatis octogesimum quartum attingere, paucos contra eum vivendo superare.”+ But we may go farther, and affirm, that within the last century, at least, the value of life has gone on progressively and rapidly improving.

The experience of our own country would exhibit the truth of this assertion, but the data are not readily attainable, if attainable at all. The census, established from time to time in England, affords us information of an unquestionable character. The first actual enumeration of the inhabitants, was made in the year 1801. It gave to England and Wales a population of 9,168,000, and a mortality of 204,434, or l'in 44.8. The second was made in 1811. The population was then 10,502,900, and the mortality 1 in 50; and the third and last, which took place in 1821, gave an enumeration, according to Mr. Rickman, (who was appointed by the secretary of state for the home department, to digest and reduce into order the population returns, and by the privy council to arrange the parish register returns) of 12,218,500, and a mortality of 1 in 58. I

In France, the annual deaths were, in 1781, 1 in 29; in 1802, 1 in 30; and in 1823, 1 in 40; and in Sweden, the mortality has decreased, from 1 in 35 (1755 to 1775) to 1 in 48.

* Hufeland, pp. 99 to 110.
+ Institutiones Physiologicæ, edit. Stia. p. 553.

Abstract of the Answers and Returns, made pursuant to an act passed in the 1st year of George IV. intituled “ An Act for taking an Account of the Population of Great Britain, and of the increase or diminution thereof, 1821."

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